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School of Public Policy

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 1347
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    The Role of DARPA in Seeding and Encouraging New Technology Trajectories: Pre- and Post- Tony Tether in the New Innovation Ecosystem
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-03) Fuchs, Erica R. ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts ; School of Public Policy
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    Public participation in science and technology policy: consensus conferences and social inclusion
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2012-05-18) Bal, Ravtosh ; Cozzens, Susan E. ; Barke, Richard ; Elliott, Michael ; Leggon, Cheryl ; Thomas, John ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts ; Public Policy
    This study looks at the National Citizens' Technology Forum (NCTF), a modified version of the consensus conference, which took place in March, 2008 in six cities across the U.S. to understand how inclusive these methods of public participation are in practice. The research focused on two of these sites. Inclusion of participants was defined in terms of presence, voice and being heard. Transcripts of the audio-visual recordings of the proceedings were the main data of analysis. By focusing on the talk within these deliberative forums, the study looked at how the rules of engagement and status (ascribed and achieved) differences between participants can affect inclusion. The analysis did not reveal any substantial effects of ascribed characteristics on deliberation. Facilitation and the presence of expertise among the participants were found to influence inclusion and equality among participants. These findings suggest that organizers and facilitators of deliberative exercises have to be reflexive of their role as well as aware of the group dynamics. The results also address the larger questions within science and technology policy like the role of expertise and the public in decision making, the institutional design of participatory exercises, and their relation to the political culture and the policy process.
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    Identification of policy problems in systems of innovation through diagnostic analysis
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Edquist, Charles ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    ‘Activities’ in innovation systems are the determinants of the development and diffusion of innovations. (Examples are R&D, provision of organizations and institutions, financing of innovations, incubation, etc.) These activities are partly performed by private organizations and partly by public ones. Those performed by public organizations constitute innovation policy. As a basis for innovation policy, the problems in the systems must be identified. These ‘systemic problems’ or ‘policy problems’ can be identified only by means of comparing existing innovation systems with each other – over time and space. On this basis the division of labor between public and private organizations must be analyzed. This division of labor varies between countries and over time. To determine this division of labor is a matter of strategic choices in innovation policy-making. This paper will be focused upon the identification of systemic problems through diagnostic analysis.
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    Assessment of fifteen nanotechnology science and engineering centers? (NSECs) Outcomes and impacts: their contribution to NNI objectives and goals
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2011-03-31) Rogers, Juan D. ; Youtie, Jan L. ; Porter, Alan L. ; Shapira, Philip ; School of Public Policy ; Office of Sponsored Programs ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
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    The co-construction of court-made patent policy and firm strategy
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2019-07-30) Sung, Elie J. ; Walsh, John P. ; Kingsley, Gordon ; Marco, Alan ; Graham, Stuart ; Holbrook, Timothy ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts ; Public Policy
    The need to accommodate new technologies at an increasingly fast pace has led the judicial branch to become a key source of changes in patent policy in the United States. This dissertation examines the co-construction of patent policy and innovation strategy in the judicial branch of government. Its main contributions are to the economics of innovation literature and to the policy process literature. A long-lasting debate on the relation between patent and innovation has led to a multitude of studies supporting each side of the debate about the desirability of strong patents, as well as a lack of conclusive empirical evidence, mainly due to methodological challenges in estimating the impact of a change in patent strength. Leveraging a shock created by the US Supreme Court, I show that the common belief that weaker patents lead to fewer innovations is wrong (for a specific aspect of patent), while accounting for the heterogeneous patent-related strategies. Using mixed-methodology (interviews, court documents and census data), I find that the arguments made in court mirror the debate in the academic literature and I show that impact on innovation is contingent on firms’ characteristics and innovation strategies. Motivated by the heterogeneous impact of patent policy, stakeholders attempt to influence the US Supreme Court decisions. Therefore, taking advantage of this setting, I address a gap in the policy process literature, which has neglected the judicial branch of government. This dissertation builds on perspectives from the legal and political science literatures, examining policymaking processes in the US Supreme Court to incorporate the judicial branch of government in the corpus of policy process literature. Focusing on the role of stakeholders and how they use information strategically, I find evidence of influence of different types of information at the two phases of the policy process, a distinction unobserved in settings considered in the existing policy process literature.
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    Building systems of innovation in less developed countries: The role of intermediate organizations
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Szogs, Astrid ; Cummings, Andrew ; Chaminade, Cristina ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of intermediate organizations in supporting different forms of interactive learning and capability building in small scale business initiatives in emerging innovation systems in developing countries, using data from Tanzania and El Salvador. It is argued that different types of intermediate organizations have played key roles in linking marginalized economic actors, to sources of knowledge and other resources that are essential for capability upgrading and innovation in both traditional and more differentiated economic activities. They thus play an important role in linking innovative activity, to maintaining and upgrading the quality of existing jobs in crisis, generating new ones where opportunities arise, providing income crucial for family wellbeing in countries characterized by low levels of human development and high levels of inequality.The paper is structured as follows. After the introduction the concepts of systems of innovation, interactive learning and intermediaries in less developed countries are reviewed. This is followed by a presentation of the data and methodology, which is then analyzed in the following section. The paper ends with some conclusions on the role of intermediate organisations in linking actors, enabling technology and knowledge diffusion and building innovation systems in less developed countries.
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    Politics and tax morale. the role of trust, values, and beliefs, in shaping individual attitudes towards tax compliance.
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2011-11-11) Leonardo, Gabriel ; Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge ; Lewis, Gregory ; Hankla, Charles ; Rogers, Juan ; Torgler, Benno ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts ; Public Policy
    Traditional models of tax evasion cannot explain why most people comply with their taxes. It has been proposed that taxpayers may have an intrinsic motivation (or willingness) to comply with taxes - Tax Morale. Empirical studies found that trusting government, upholding religious beliefs, and supporting democratic regimes, increase individual Tax Morale. Based on those results and drawing from related literature in Political Science, this study tests the role of trusting government institutions delivering public goods to taxpayers, ideological beliefs, individual support for political regimes, and upholding post-materialist values, on Tax Morale. Results for individuals living in democratic countries show a positive relationship between trust in government institutions and upholding democratic values on Tax Morale; a negative relationship between upholding ideological (conservative) beliefs and Tax Morale, and no relationship between upholding post-materialist values and Tax Morale. Results for individuals living under non-democratic regimes differ in some respects; whereas support for democracy is related with higher Tax Morale, other results - trust in government and ideological beliefs - differ from theoretical expectations. Overall, higher trust in government increases willingness to comply with taxes, and support for democracy elicits higher Tax Morale.
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    Academic entrepreneurship and state science policy: lessons from state support for stem cell research
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2011-06-30) Levine, Aaron D. ; School of Public Policy ; Office of Sponsored Programs ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
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    Persistence and structural change in the technological specialization of Brazil
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Urraca-Ruiz, Ana ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    Since the beginning of the nineties, Brazil has been going through a process of trade liberalization. The effects of this process have not been fully under analysis. Most of the literature that deals with this issue has a macroeconomic approach, especially those that concern the trade balance and its fiscal and monetary consequences and the impacts these features have on the growth process. The assessment of the microeconomic consequences of the growth process, apart from being scarce, are limited to studies on the competitiveness of industrial structures, on the productive re-structuring and on consequences over the structure of domestic markets. Trade liberalization may however have deeper consequences on structural transformation than those that have been under investigation and may have effects on the productive specialization of the country (Myro and Alvarez 2003) and particularly on technological competences. A country's technological competences are closely related to its productive and commercial base. Productive transformations may therefore affect the technological structure of a country. This paper aims to investigate changes in the technological specialization of Brazil and to draw a profile of its technological competences before and after the trade liberalization. The paper is organized in four sections apart this introduction and the final conclusions. In the first section, the paper presents a survey of the literature on the determinants of a country's technological specialization and the consequences trade liberalization may have on the allocation of technological efforts across technical fields. The second section describes the database. The third section is dedicated to the analysis of the Brazilian technological specialization through the undertaking of three analyses: (1) the changes in the revealed technological advantages (RTA) as indicator of the technological opportunity; (2) the relative position of Brazil with respect to three groups of countries (leaders, Asian followers and Latin-American followers); and (3) a shift-share analysis of the components of the technological structural change.
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    Evaluating Patent Licensing Agreements for Technology Diffusion at the U.S. National Labs
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2013-09-26) Chan, Gabriel ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts ; School of Public Policy
    Under the Stevenson-Wydler Act, the U.S. National Laboratories are required to transfer inventions to the private sector. I evaluate one technology transfer mechanism, patent licensing, by (1) identifying technology areas that Labs are successful in licensing patents, and (2) quantifying the public benefits of licensing agreements, measured by increased citations.