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School of Public Policy

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 1349
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    The power of remittances on the prevalence of child labor
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Ebeke, Christian ; Université d’Auvergne. Centre d’études et de recherches sur le développement international
    This article examines the relationship between migrants’ remittances and the prevalence of child labor by using a large sample of developing countries. In particular, we investigate whether the inflows of remittances help to offset the effects of financial constraints and income shocks on the prevalence of child labor. Starting from a simple theoretical model, then based on a sample of 97 developing countries (of which 31 are African) observed over the period 1998-2002, we show that remittances reduce significantly child labor in developing countries characterized by weak financial systems and by strong income instability. These results were robust even after taking into account the potential endogeneity of remittances and financial development in the regressions. Policy recommendations for specific strategies to facilitate receipt of remittances by households are more than ever appropriate for a region like Sub-Saharan Africa, which currently receives a small fraction of these funds compared to other developing countries, and where the prevalence of child labor is still a serious issue.
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    Uncompensated care provision and the economic behavior of hospitals: the influence of the regulatory environment
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-11-12) Zhang, Lei ; Farnham, Paul G. ; Custer, William ; Gurmu, Shiferaw ; Ketsche, Patricia ; Minyard, Karen ; Noonan, Douglas ; Public Policy
    This dissertation project examines the effect of various state regulations such as Certificate-of-Need (CON) regulation, uncompensated care pools and community benefit requirement laws on hospital provision of uncompensated care and analyzes both for-profit and non-profit hospitals' responsiveness to the regulatory environment. The analysis of these regulations uses panel data econometric methods for a sample of hospitals in 17 states from 2002 to 2004. This study overcomes the limits of previous research that focused primarily on the effect of a single regulation in a given state. It uses three estimation methods: pooled Ordinary Least Squares (pooled OLS), random effects generalized least squares (GLS) and Hausman Taylor instrumental variable (HTIV) to obtain the parameter estimates. Weighing the advantages and disadvantages of each method, we interpret results based on the cross-validation of the GLS and HTIV estimates. Findings suggest that nonprofit and for-profit hospitals respond to some policy instruments similarly and others differently. For example, both nonprofit and for-profit hospitals respond to CON laws by increasing their uncompensated care provision. However, they respond to policy incentives such as community benefit requirement laws differently. Furthermore, regulatory interactions are found to significantly influence the uncompensated care provision by both nonprofit and for-profit hospitals. The dissertation helps policy makers formulate strategies to create incentives to enhance access to care for the economically disadvantaged. For example, implementing CON and providing public subsidies at the same time may offer better access to care for the uninsured than implementing either regulation alone. However, community benefit requirement laws do not appear to expand the amount of uncompensated care provided by nonprofit hospitals.
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    National Systems of Innovation: the Connections between Neo-schumpeterians and ECLA literatures
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2004) Cassiolato, José Eduardo ; Global Network for Economics of Learning, Innovation, and Competence Building Systems ; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
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    Moderators to Interdisciplinary Research Measure Application
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2011-09-16) Birkholz, Julie ; Van den Besselaar, Peter ; Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Dept. of Organisation Science ; Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Network Institute
    A decade of studies has explored interdisciplinary research (IDR). Despite this, the theory on IDR remains scattered. We present a typology that aids in explaining this fuzziness. This typology enables to distinguish between the multiple forms of interdisciplinary manifestations, and suggests relevant indicators for interdisciplinarity.
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    Prevention and reversal of Alzheimer's disease: treatment protocol
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2018-01-23) Kostoff, Ronald N. ; Porter, Alan L. ; Buchtel, Henry A. ; Georgia Institute of Technology. School of Public Policy ; University of Michigan. Department of Psychiatry
    This monograph presents a five-step treatment protocol to prevent and reverse Alzheimer's Disease (AD), based on the following systemic medical principle: at the present time, removal of cause is a necessary, but not necessarily sufficient, condition for restorative treatment to be effective. The five treatment protocol steps are as follows: Step 1 - obtain a detailed medical and habit/exposure history from the patient; Step 2 - administer written and clinical performance and behavioral tests to assess the severity of the higher-level symptoms and degradation of executive functions; Step 3 - administer laboratory tests (blood, urine, imaging, etc.); Step 4 - eliminate ongoing AD contributing factors; Step 5 - implement AD treatments. This individually-tailored AD treatment protocol can be implemented with the data available in the biomedical literature presently. Additionally, while the methodology developed for this study was applied to AD, it is general and applicable to any chronic disease that, like AD, has an associated substantial research literature. Thus, the protocol and methodology we have developed to prevent or reverse AD can be used to prevent or reverse any chronic disease (with the possible exceptions of individuals with strong genetic predispositions to the disease in question or who have suffered irreversible damage from the disease).***NOTE***There are four files in this record. Presently, they are located in the left column of this Web page listed under the heading View/Open. MONOGRAPH_FINAL.pdf contains the monograph narrative; FIGURES_FINAL.xlsx contains the figures from the monograph in Excel spreadsheet format; SUPPLEMENTARY_FINAL.pdf contains supplementary bibliography and queries; and README.pdf is the ReadMe file. The two data files are referenced in the monograph as either "(see file FIGURES_FINAL.xlsx)" or "(see file SUPPLEMENTARY_FINAL.pdf)".
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    Professional autonomy in English and Dutch universities: the influence of reforms on the research practices in Public Research Universities
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Leisyte, Liudvika ; Universiteit Twente
    This paper presents the findings of an international comparative study of higher education policy influence on the basic units of knowledge production in biotechnology and history at public research universities (Leisyte, 2007a). The aim of the paper is to explore how higher education and research reforms in England and the Netherlands have influenced professional autonomy of certain basic research units. The paper uses the interview data collected in 2005, supplemented with the document and secondary literature analysis. In order to understand change in the professional autonomy we look at research practices of basic research units, such as, their freedom to choose lines of research. The paper starts with the overview of the higher education and research reforms in England and the Netherlands since 1980s. After setting the context, the theoretical and methodological underpinnings are presented. The paper proceeds with the exploration 1 PhD ( 2 Research Associate, Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS), University of Twente Paper presented in the Prime-Latin America Conference at Mexico City, September 24-26 2008 2 of the professional autonomy of basic research units in biotechnology and medieval history in both countries looking at stability and change in their research practices. The major findings are summarized in the last part followed by a reflection on the comparison between the two fields of research and two countries.
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    Economic Development and the National System of Innovation Approach
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2004) Johnson, Björn ; Edquist, Charles ; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke ; Global Network for Economics of Learning, Innovation, and Competence Building Systems ; Aalborg universitet ; Lunds universitet
    “One major academic aim of the conference is to enrich and enhance the quality of innovation research by applying some of its fundamental concepts such as 'innovation systems', 'competence building' and 'interactive learning' to issues at the core of economic development. It is well known that applying a theoretical framework outside the arena where it was first developed may bring fundamental new theoretical insights.” In this paper we will try to substantiate what is referred to in the above text taken from the conference web-site for the first Globelics conference. We will try to demonstrate that the application of the innovation system concept on economic development makes more visible some general weaknesses of the concept and gives strong incentives to develop it further. In the development context it becomes clear that we need to understand better the formation of as well as the openness of national systems and the role of power relationships as well as the broader institutional context supporting competence building.
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    Technology diffusion and income inequality: how augmented Kuznets hypothesis could explain ICT diffusion?
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005) Preto, Miguel Torres ; Global Network for Economics of Learning, Innovation, and Competence Building Systems ; Instituto Superior Técnico (Lisbon, Portugal). Centro de Estudos em Inovação, Tecnologia e Políticas de Desenvolvimento
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    GWAS Data and Federally-Funded Public Access Repositories: Considering the Ethical, Policy, and Social Implications from Multiple View Points
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-02) Koenig, Barbara ; McCormick, Jennifer ; Wu, Joel
    The collection and distribution of individual genotypic and phenotypic data has increased enormously in the past 10 years and shows no signs of slowing down. The rapid growth of bioinformatics technologies and genome wide association studies (GWAS) continues to increase the quantity and availability GWAS data. As the size, complexity, and number of GWAS increase, so do the risks to maintaining individual privacy, confidentiality, and autonomy and the public's trust in genomic research. The utility of collecting and using genotype and phenotype to promote advances in our understanding of human health and well-being must be kept in line with individual rights. And, policy governing the depositing of GWAS data into publicly accessible databases as well as obtaining that data by downstream researchers must balance the scientific benefit against the potential social and ethical risks. GWAS are an important tool in ascertaining genetic contribution to health risks, as well as in development of new therapeutic targets. The significance of GWAS data is subject to not only the size of the study population, but also the accuracy of phenotypic measures and density of the markers used in genotyping; as such, meaningful GWAS data are expensive and difficult to obtain. The scientific community has recognized there is high value in sharing the genotype and phenotype data obtained through GWAS. In response, the NIH established the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). dbGaP is a centralized database of GWAS data collected from large scale NIH-funded studies. The data collected and deposited into dbGaP can be distributed either publicly, or through a restricted process, depending on the nature of the data being shared and who is making the request for data. All NIH supported investigators are required to deposit GWAS data in dbGaP in order to maintain their NIH funding. Sharing of GWAS data involves distribution of sensitive personal information including at minimum, genotype and phenotype data, potentially including additional information such as individual medical records. The sharing of GWAS data exposes not only research subjects to additional risk of identification, harm, and loss of autonomy on how that data might be used, but also exposes researchers and institutions to increased risks for liability, loss of public trust, and loss of funding. These increased risks raise important ethical, legal, policy, and social issues that must be addressed by institutional and federal data sharing policy. While dbGaP is currently the only such data repository, it is very likely that other similarly federal research agency operated databases will come online in the near future. There are various stakeholders in this endeavor to increase ease of accessibility to GWAS data: researchers - both who deposit the data and who obtain the data from the repository, policy-makers who want to see the utility of the science they fund maximized, patient advocates who focus on pushing science along, government and individual institution research administrators who must oversee the repository and or access to the data, and research participants who contribute samples to the GWAS. This paper will discuss the experiences of the authors in creating an institutional policy as well as their participation in deliberations about cross-institutional data sharing policies. Particular emphasis will be placed on how to balance the utility of the data for scientific progress while still keeping in sight the rights, privacy, and confidentiality of the individual. In addition, the authors will present preliminary empirical data from interviews conducted with various stakeholders. The paper will also address the following questions regarding genotype and phenotype data sharing policy through a federal research agency publicly accessible repository in light of emerging legal and policy developments from late 2008 and 2009, 1. how to balance the scientific value of data sharing against the privacy risks, who should have access to different types of GWAS data; 2. whether GWAS data can be de-identified, and what de-identified really means. As noted above, dbGaP is one of the first such publicly accessible genotype and phenotype databases, and determination of relevant issues in creating policy for these databases is of critical importance. As we move forward in this era for large-scale GWAS, striving for advances in biomedical research and the eventual commonplace of individualized medicine, the combined perspectives of all stakeholders should be synthesized into a guiding framework for how research institutions and the federal government can create informed, relevant policy to protect not only the privacy, confidentiality, and personal interests of individual research subjects, but also to protect and promote the progress of individualized research medicine as a whole.