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Humanoid Robotics Laboratory

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Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
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Navigation Among Movable Obstacles in Unknown Environments

2010-10 , Wu, Hai-Ning , Levihn, Martin , Stilman, Mike , Georgia Institute of Technology. Center for Robotics and Intelligent Machines

This paper explores the Navigation Among Movable Obstacles (NAMO) problem in an unknown environment. We consider the realistic scenario in which the robot has to navigate to a goal position in an unknown environment consisting of static and movable objects. The robot may move objects if the goal can not be reached otherwise or if moving the object may significantly shorten the path to the goal. We consider real situations in which the robot only has limited sensing information and where the action selection can therefore only be based on partial knowledge learned from the environment at that point. This paper introduces an algorithm that significantly reduces the necessary calculations to accomplish this task compared to a direct approach. We present an efficient implementation for the case of planar, axis-aligned environments and report experimental results on challenging scenarios with more than 50 objects.

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Detecting Partially Occluded Objects via Segmentation and Validation

2012 , Levihn, Martin , Dutton, Matthew , Trevor, Alexander J. B. , Stilman, Mike , Georgia Institute of Technology. Center for Robotics and Intelligent Machines

This paper presents a novel algorithm: Verfied Partial Object Detector (VPOD) for accurate detection of partially occluded objects such as furniture in 3D point clouds. VPOD is implemented and validated on real sensor data obtained by our robot. It extends Viewpoint Feature Histograms (VFH) which classify unoccluded objects to also classifying partially occluded objects such as furniture that might be seen in typical office environments. To achieve this result, VPOD employs two strategies. First, object models are segmented and the object database is extended to include partial models. Second, once a matching partial object is detected, the full object model is aligned back into the scene and verified for consistency with the point cloud data. Overall, our approach increases the number of objects found and substantially reduces false positives due to the verification process.

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Hierarchical Decision Theoretic Planning for Navigation Among Movable Obstacles

2012-06 , Levihn, Martin , Scholz, Jonathan , Stilman, Mike , Georgia Institute of Technology. Center for Robotics and Intelligent Machines

In this paper we present the first decision theoretic planner for the problem of Navigation Among Movable Obstacles (NAMO). While efficient planners for NAMO exist, they are challenging to implement in practice due to the inherent uncertainty in both perception and control of real robots. Generalizing existing NAMO planners to nondeterministic domains is particularly difficult due to the sensitivity of MDP methods to task dimensionality. Our work addresses this challenge by combining ideas from Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning with Monte Carlo Tree Search, and results in an algorithm that can be used for fast online planning in uncertain environments. We evaluate our algorithm in simulation, and provide a theoretical argument for our results which suggest linear time complexity in the number of obstacles for typical environments.

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Autonomous Environment Manipulation to Assist Humanoid Locomotion

2014 , Levihn, Martin , Nishiwaki, Koichi , Kagami, Satoshi , Stilman, Mike , Georgia Institute of Technology. Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Machines , National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan). Digital Human Research Center

Legged robots have unique capabilities to traverse complex environments by stepping over and onto objects. Many footstep planners have been developed to take advantage of these capabilities. However, legged robots also have inherent constraints such as a maximum step height and distance. These constraints typically limit their reachable space, independent of footstep planning. Thus, we propose that robots such as humanoid robots that have manipulation capabilities should use them. A robot should autonomously modify its environment if necessary. We present a system that enabled a real robot to use a box to create itself a stair step or place a board on the ground to cross a gap, allowing it to reach its otherwise unreachable goal configuration.

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Planning with Movable Obstacles in Continuous Environments with Uncertain Dynamics

2013-05 , Levihn, Martin , Scholz, Jonathan , Stilman, Mike , Georgia Institute of Technology. Center for Robotics and Intelligent Machines

In this paper we present a decision theoretic planner for the problem of Navigation Among Movable Obstacles (NAMO) operating under conditions faced by real robotic systems. While planners for the NAMO domain exist, they typically assume a deterministic environment or rely on discretization of the configuration and action spaces, preventing their use in practice. In contrast, we propose a planner that operates in real-world conditions such as uncertainty about the parameters of workspace objects and continuous configuration and action (control) spaces. To achieve robust NAMO planning despite these conditions, we introduce a novel integration of Monte Carlo simulation with an abstract MDP construction. We present theoretical and empirical arguments for time complexity linear in the number of obstacles as well as a detailed implementation and examples from a dynamic simulation environment.

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Efficient Opening Detection

2011 , Levihn, Martin , Stilman, Mike , Georgia Institute of Technology. Center for Robotics and Intelligent Machines

We present an efficient and powerful algorithm for detecting openings. Openings indicate the existence of a new path for the robot. The reliable detection of new openings is especially relevant to the domain of Navigation Among Movable Obstacles in known [7] as well as unknown [2] environments. Tremendous speed-ups for algorithms in these domains can be achieved by limiting the considerations of obstacle manipulations to cases where manipulations create new openings. The presented algorithm can detect openings for obstacles of arbitrary shapes being displaced in arbitrary directions in changing environments. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first algorithm to achieve efficient opening detection for arbitrary shaped obstacles.

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Multi-Robot Multi-Object Rearrangement in Assignment Space

2012-10 , Levihn, Martin , Igarashi, Takeo , Stilman, Mike , Georgia Institute of Technology. Center for Robotics and Intelligent Machines , Georgia Institute of Technology. College of Computing , University of Tokyo

We present Assignment Space Planning, a new efficient robot multi-agent coordination algorithm for the PSPACE- hard problem of multi-robot multi-object push rearrangement. In both simulated and real robot experiments, we demonstrate that our method produces optimal solutions for simple problems and exhibits novel emergent behaviors for complex scenarios. Assignment Space takes advantage of the domain structure by splitting the planning up into three stages, effectively reducing the search space size and enabling the planner to produce optimized plans in seconds. Our algorithm finds solutions of comparable quality to complete configuration space search while reducing the computing time to seconds, which allows our approach to be applied in practical scenarios in real-time.

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Foresight and Reconsideration in Hierarchical Planning and Execution

2013-11 , Levihn, Martin , Kaelbling, Leslie Pack , Lozano-Pérez, Tomás , Stilman, Mike , Georgia Institute of Technology. Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Machines

We present a hierarchical planning and execution architecture that maintains the computational efficiency of hierar- chical decomposition while improving optimality. It provides mech- anisms for monitoring the belief state during execution and per- forming selective replanning to repair poor choices and take advan- tage of new opportunities. It also provides mechanisms for looking ahead into future plans to avoid making short-sighted choices. The effectiveness of this architecture is shown through comparative experiments in simulation and demonstrated on a real PR2 robot.

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Detecting Partially Occluded Objects via Segmentation and Validation

2013-01 , Levihn, Martin , Dutton, Matthew , Trevor, Alexander J. B. , Stilman, Mike , Georgia Institute of Technology. Center for Robotics and Intelligent Machines

This paper presents a novel algorithm: Verfied Partial Object Detector (VPOD) for accurate detection of partially occluded objects such as furniture in 3D point clouds. VPOD is implemented and validated on real sensor data obtained by our robot. It extends Viewpoint Feature His- tograms (VFH), which classify unoccluded objects, to also classify partially occluded objects such as furniture that might be seen in typical office environments. To achieve this result, VPOD employs two strategies. First, object models are segmented and the object database is extended to include partial models. Second, once a matching partial object is detected, the complete object model is aligned back into the scene and verified for consistency with the point cloud data. Overall, our approach increases the number of objects found and substantially reduces false positives due to the verification process.