Doctor of Philosophy with a Major in Architecture

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
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    A functional modeling framework for interdisciplinary building design
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2018-08-01) Cavieres, Andres
    The process of Building Design, as in many other forms of design, requires the effective integration of different types of knowledge. However, and in the specific context of Building Information Modeling, only structural knowledge is formally represented. Other types of necessary knowledge, such as those related to the functionality of design, and the set of causal behaviors from which such functionality is delivered, remain tacit or indirectly referenced by using structural properties as proxy representations (e.g. geometry). The lack of a more comprehensive and rigorous representational framework to formally describe various behavioral and functional aspects of buildings limits the scope of semantics required to support more effective interdisciplinary collaboration and design integration. In particular, there is a lack of computational support to describe cross-cutting behavioral interactions and side-effects that occur among different building sub-systems, which often play a role in the satisfaction of functional goals. To address this problem, the research proposes the development of a representational framework for the functional and behavioral characterization of building systems and components based on the Functional Representation (FR) schema developed by Chandrasekaran and Josephson (2000), and its recent formalization following the DOLCE foundation ontology, by Borgo et al. (2009). A subset of FR axioms has been translated into Description Logic using the Web Ontology Language (OWL-DL) to explore query capabilities of the proposed framework to support identification of behavioral interactions based on inference capabilities of available OWL-DL reasoners. The dissertation provides a theoretical basis for the formulation of functional modeling capabilities currently not available in Building Design. In particular, these capabilities are intended to support the incremental elucidation of behavioral interactions that emerge across different building sub-systems, based on the principle of co-participation of structural entities in a same behavioral phenomena (category of perdurants). The elucidation is expected to be supported by computational inference from structural relations asserted in BIM models by various stakeholders, and at different stages of the design process.
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    BIM synapse: A framework for BIM interoperability in the cloud
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2017-07-11) Afsari, Kereshmeh
    In the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry, collaboration within Building Information Modeling (BIM) process is mainly based on transferring files. BIM data is being exchanged in either vendor specific file formats or neutral format using Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) as open BIM standard. However, since the web enables cloud-based BIM services, it provides an opportunity to exchange non-file based data via the web and over the networks. Alternative BIM data sharing solutions have been developed based on the federation of BIM models with BIM server technologies or using an interchange hub for data exchange in real-time. These solutions face several challenges, are vendor locked, and integrate two or multiple applications to a third new system which is tightly coupled. In addition to scalability issues, these data sharing technologies make the collaborating applications dependent upon each other which end up with high complexity. In fact, current cloud-based interoperability solutions do not provide a loosely coupled system with the flexibility to reduce dependencies among collaborating applications. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to propose an interoperability framework that supports a network-based BIM data exchange for loosely coupled collaboration in the cloud. This research emphasizes that there is a need to reshape BIM collaboration in the cloud by using web technologies. This study indicates that Cloud-based Building Information Modeling needs to deploy major components of the cloud interoperability including the APIs, data transfer protocols, data formats, and standardization to redefine BIM dataflow in Cloud-BIM applications. BIM Synapse framework proposed in this research utilizes web technologies- as the enabler for a cloud-based collaborative process- to restructure current BIM dataflow. BIM Synapse deploys cloud interoperability features and IFC data model to address current challenges of BIM data exchange in the cloud and provides a loosely-coupled network-based data interoperability solution for Cloud-BIM. The study also applies the proposed framework on BIM collaboration in the conceptual design process of precast concrete buildings and evaluates the correctness, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of the BIM Synapse framework. BIM Synapse framework has a major contribution to standardization of Cloud-based BIM data exchange and can enable the integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) - that requires network connectivity and provision of resources through the Web of Things (WoT)- with the BIM process. The study also recommends required revisions to the IFC specification so that the IFC schema can perform as the basis for Cloud-BIM interoperability.
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    Meta-modeling design expertise
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2016-05-23) Bernal Verdejo, Marcelo
    The general problem that this research addresses is that despite the efforts of cognitive studies to describe and document the behavior of designers in action and the evolution of computer-aided design from conceptual design to fabrication, efforts to provide computational support for high-level actions that designers execute during the creation of their work have made minimal progress. In this regard this study seeks answers to the following questions: What is the nature of design expertise? How do we capture the knowledge that expert designers embed in their patterns of organization for creating a coherent arrangement of parts? And how do we use this knowledge to develop computational methods and techniques that capture and reuse such expertise to augment the capability of designers to explore alternatives? The challenge is that such an expertise is largely based on experience, assumptions, and heuristics, and requires a process of elucidation and interpretation before any implementation into computational environments. This research adopts the meta-modeling process from the model-based systems engineering field (MBSE), understood as the creation of models of attributes and relationships among objects of a domain. Meta-modeling can contribute to elucidating, structuring, capturing, representing, and creatively manipulating knowledge embedded in design patterns. The meta-modeling process relies on abstractions that allow the integration of myriad physical and abstract entities independent from the complexity of the geometric models; mapping mechanisms that facilitate the interfacing of a repository of parts, functions, and even other systems; and computer-interpretable and human-readable meta-models that enable the generation and the assessment of both configuration specifications and geometric representations. For validation purposes three case studies from the domain of customs façade systems have been deeply studied using techniques of verbal analysis, complemented with digital documentation, for distilling the design knowledge that have been captured into the meta-models for reutilization in the generation of design alternatives. The results of this research include a framework for capturing and reusing design expertise, parametric modeling guidelines for reutilization, methods for multiplicity of external geometric representations, and the augmentation of the design space of exploration. The framework is the result of generalizing verbal analyses of the three case studies that allow the identification of the mechanics behind the application of a pattern of organization over physical components. The guidelines for reutilization are the outcome of the iterative process of automatically generating well-formed parametric models out of existing parts. The capability of producing multiple geometric representations is the product of identifying ae generic operation for interpreting abstract configuration specifications. The amplification of the design space is derived from the flexibility of the process to specify and represent alternatives. In summary, the adoption of the meta-modeling process fosters the integration of abstract constructs developed in the design cognition field that facilitate the manipulation of knowledge embedded in the underlying patterns of design organization. Meta-modeling is a mental and computational process based on abstraction and generalization that enable reutilization.
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    Manufacturing compliance analysis for architectural design: a knowledge-aided feature-based modeling framework
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2016-03-29) Valdes, Francisco Javier
    Given that achieving nominal (all dimensions are theoretically perfect) geometry is challenging during building construction, understanding and anticipating sources of geometric variation through tolerances modeling and allocation is critical. However, existing building modeling environments lack the ability to support coordinated, incremental and systematic specification of manufacturing and construction requirements. This issue becomes evident when adding multi-material systems produced off site by different vendors during building erection. Current practices to improve this situation include costly and time-consuming operations that challenge the relationship among the stakeholders of a project. As one means to overcome this issue, this research proposes the development of a knowledge-aided modeling framework that integrates a parametric CAD tool with a system modeling application to assess variability in building construction. The CAD tool provides robust geometric modeling capabilities, while System Modeling allows for the specification of feature-based manufacturing requirements aligned with construction standards and construction processes know-how. The system facilitates the identification of conflicting interactions between tolerances and manufacturing specifications of building material systems. The expected contributions of this project are the representation of manufacturing knowledge and tolerances interaction across off-site building subsystems to identify conflicting manufacturing requirements and minimize costly construction errors. The proposed approach will store and allocate manufacturing knowledge as Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) design specifications for both single and multiple material systems. Also, as new techniques in building design and construction are beginning to overlap with engineering methods and standards (e.g. in-factory prefabrication), this project seeks to create collaborative scenarios between MBSE and Building Information Modeling (BIM) based on parametric, simultaneous, software integration to reduce human-to-data translation errors, improving model consistency among domains. Important sub-stages of this project include the comprehensive review of modeling and allocation of tolerances and geometric deviations in design, construction and engineering; an approach for model integration among System Engineering models, mathematical engines and BIM (CAD) models; and finally, a demonstration computational implementation of a System-level tolerances modeling and allocation approach.
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    A simplified BIM data representation using a relational database schema for an efficient rule checking system and its associated rule checking language
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2015-12-29) Solihin, Wawan
    Efforts to automate building rule checking have not brought us anywhere near to the ultimate goal to fully automate the rule checking process. With the advancement in BIM and the latest tools and computing capability, we have what is necessary to achieve it. And yet challenges still abound. This research takes a holistic approach to solve the issue by first examining the rule complexity and its logic structure. Three major aspects of the rules are addressed in this research. The first is a new approach to transform BIM data into a simple database schema and to make it easily query-able by adopting the data warehouse approach. Geometry and spatial operations are also commonly needed for automating rules, and therefore the second approach is to integrate these into a database in the form of multiple representations. The third is a standardized rule language that leverages the database query integrated with its geometry and spatial query capability, called BIMRL. It is designed for a non-programmatic approach to the rule definitions that is suitable for typical rule experts. The rule definition takes a form of triplet command: CHECK – EVALUATE – ACTION statement that can be chained to support more complex rules. A prototype system has been developed as a proof-of-concept using selected rules taken from various sources to demonstrate the validity of the approach to solve the challenges of automating the building rule checking.
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    Rule logic and its validation framework of model view definitions for building information modeling
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2015-11-17) Lee, Yong Cheol
    With the growing number of complex requirements for building and facility projects, diverse domain experts iteratively exchange building design and product data during the design, construction, and facility management phases. Such data exchanges, however, frequently involve unintended geometric transformations, inaccurate project requirements, and insufficient syntactic and semantic elements in building model data. To ensure the interoperability of building information models, this dissertation includes an examination of rules categorized from the Precast Concrete Institute model views and a generalization of the rule logic and structures of each rule set. Moreover, rule logic is coded and implemented on modularized validation platforms of a validation tool referred to as the IfcDoc tool, an automated model view documentation and validation application. This dissertation is expected to help domain experts evaluate whether building design data fulfill the data exchange specifications of their domain and the objectives of a proposed project. Furthermore, to identify unreliable and inconsistent IFC mapping procedures of BIM authoring tools, software developers using the proposed approach would implement an automated debugging process in their IFC interfaces according to the specifications of a targeted model view.
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    A framework for the implementation of design assistances for preliminary concept design of laboratories
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2015-07-30) Sheward Garcia, Hugo A.
    A framework for the implementation of automated ventilation systems engineering was proposed. An extensive research in the area of design guidelines and best practices for the design and operations of laboratories was conducted. a software prototype was created to better support the integration of ventilation engineering to early design stages was created. New methodologies for enhancing the semantics and for deriving building morphology information from early design BIM models were created. The prototype software was tested using as reference currently available practices. Findings concerning the speed of operation, the extended capabilities of the proposed framework and the implication for future research are discussed.
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    A Knowledge-based system framework for semantic enrichment and automated detailed design in the AEC projects
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2015-06-08) Aram, Shiva
    Adoption of a streamlined BIM workflow throughout the AEC projects’ lifecycle will provide the project stakeholders with the rich information embedded in the parametric design models. Users can incorporate this rich information in various activities, improving efficiency and productivity of project activities and potentially enhancing accuracy and reducing errors and reworks. Two main challenges for such a streamlined information flow throughout the AEC projects that haven’t been sufficiently addressed by previous research efforts include lack of semantic interoperability and a large gap and misalignment of information between available BIM information provided by design activities and the required information for performing preconstruction and construction activities. This research effort proposes a framework for a knowledge-based system (KBS) that encapsulates domain experts’ knowledge and represents it through modularized rule set libraries as well as connected design automation and optimization solutions. The research attempts to provide a methodology for automatic semantic enrichment of design models as well as automated detailed design to fill the information gap between design and preconstruction project activities, streamlining BIM workflow and enhancing its value in the AEC projects.
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    A model based framework for semantic interpretation of architectural construction drawings
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2012-04-24) Babalola, Olubi Oluyomi
    The study addresses the automated translation of architectural drawings from 2D Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) data into a Building Information Model (BIM), with emphasis on the nature, possible role, and limitations of a drafting language Knowledge Representation (KR) on the problem and process. The central idea is that CAD to BIM translation is a complex diagrammatic interpretation problem requiring a domain (drafting language) KR to render it tractable and that such a KR can take the form of an information model. Formal notions of drawing-as-language have been advanced and studied quite extensively for close to 25 years. The analogy implicitly encourages comparison between problem structures in both domains, revealing important similarities and offering guidance from the more mature field of Natural Language Understanding (NLU). The primary insight we derive from NLU involves the central role that a formal language description plays in guiding the process of interpretation (inferential reasoning), and the notable absence of a comparable specification for architectural drafting. We adopt a modified version of Engelhard's approach which expresses drawing structure in terms of a symbol set, a set of relationships, and a set of compositional frameworks in which they are composed. We further define an approach for establishing the features of this KR, drawing upon related work on conceptual frameworks for diagrammatic reasoning systems. We augment this with observation of human subjects performing a number of drafting interpretation exercises and derive some understanding of its inferential nature therefrom. We consider this indicative of the potential range of inferential processes a computational drafting model should ideally support. The KR is implemented as an information model using the EXPRESS language because it is in the public domain and is the implementation language of the target Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) model. We draw extensively from the IFC library to demonstrate that it can be applied in this manner, and apply the MVD methodology in defining the scope and interface of the DOM and IFC. This simplifies the IFC translation process significantly and minimizes the need for mapping. We conclude on the basis of selective implementations that a model reflecting the principles and features we define can indeed provide needed and otherwise unavailable support in drafting interpretation and other problems involving reasoning with this class of diagrammatic representations.
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    Building environment rule and analysis (BERA) language and its application for evaluating building circulation and spatial program
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2011-01-18) Lee, Jin Kook
    This study aims to design and implement a domain-specific computer programming language: the Building Environment Rule and Analysis (BERA) Language. As a result of the growing area of Building Information Modeling (BIM), there has been a need to develop highly customized domain-specific programming languages for handling issues in building models in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. The BERA Language attempts to deal with building information models in an intuitive way in order to define and analyze rules in design stages. The application of the BERA Language aims to provide efficiency in defining, analyzing and checking rules. Specific example applications implemented in this dissertation are on the evaluation of two key aspects: building circulation and spatial programming. The objective of this study is to accomplish an effectiveness and ease of use without precise knowledge of general-purpose languages that are conventionally used in BIM software development. To achieve the goal, this study proposes an abstraction of the universe of discourse - it is the BERA Object Model (BOM). It is a human-centered abstraction of complex state of building models rather than the computation-oriented abstraction. By using BOM, users can enjoy the ease of use and portability of BIM data, rather than complex and platform-dependent data structures. This study also has reviewed and demonstrated its potential for extensibility of BOM. Not only its lateral extensions such as structural building elements, but also the vertical extensions such as additional properties for existing BOM objects are good examples. In current BERA Language Tool, many computed and derived properties/relations have been proposed and implemented, as well as some basic data directly from the given building model. Target users of the BERA Language are domain experts such as architects, designers, reviewers, owners, managers, students, etc., rather than BIM software developers. It means that the people who are interested in the building environment rule and analysis are the potential users. The BERA Language Tool comprises many libraries to alleviate common but unnecessary problems and limitations that are encountered when users attempt to analyze and evaluate building models using commercially available tools. Combined with other libraries which populate rich and domain-specific datasets for certain purposes, the BERA Language will be fairly versatile to define rules and analyze various building environmental conditions.