Piezotronic devices and integrated systems

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Wu, Wenzhuo
Wang, Zhong Lin
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Novel technology which can provide new solutions and enable augmented capabilities to CMOS based technology is highly desired. Piezotronic nanodevices and integrated systems exhibit potential in achieving these application goals. By combining laser interference lithography and low temperature hydrothermal method, an effective approach for ordered growth of vertically aligned ZnO NWs array with high-throughput and low-cost at wafer-scale has been developed, without using catalyst and with a superior control over orientation, location/density and morphology of as-synthesized ZnO NWs. Beyond the materials synthesis, by utilizing the gating effect produced by the piezopotential in a ZnO NW under externally applied deformation, strain-gated transistors (SGTs) and universal logic operations such as NAND, NOR, XOR gates have been demonstrated for performing piezotronic logic operations for the first time. In addition, the first piezoelectrically-modulated resistive switching device based on piezotronic ZnO NWs has also been presented, through which the write/read access of the memory cell is programmed via electromechanical modulation and the logic levels of the strain applied on the memory cell can be recorded and read out for the first time. Furthermore, the first and by far the largest 3D array integration of vertical NW piezotronic transistors circuitry as active pixel-addressable pressure-sensor matrix for tactile imaging has been demonstrated, paving innovative routes towards industrial-scale integration of NW piezotronic devices for sensing, micro/nano-systems and human-electronics interfacing. The presented concepts and results in this thesis exhibit the potential for implementing novel nanoelectromechanical devices and integrating with MEMS/NEMS technology to achieve augmented functionalities to state-of-the-art CMOS technology such as active interfacing between machines and human/ambient as well as micro/nano-systems capable of intelligent and self-sufficient multi-dimensional operations.
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