Parametric estimation of randomly compressed functions

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Mantzel, William
Romberg, Justin
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Within the last decade, a new type of signal acquisition has emerged called Compressive Sensing that has proven especially useful in providing a recoverable representation of sparse signals. This thesis presents similar results for Compressive Parametric Estimation. Here, signals known to lie on some unknown parameterized subspace may be recovered via randomized compressive measurements, provided the number of compressive measurements is a small factor above the product of the parametric dimension with the subspace dimension with an additional logarithmic term. In addition to potential applications that simplify the acquisition hardware, there is also the potential to reduce the computational burden in other applications, and we explore one such application in depth in this thesis. Source localization by matched-field processing (MFP) generally involves solving a number of computationally intensive partial differential equations. We introduce a technique that mitigates this computational workload by ``compressing'' these computations. Drawing on key concepts from the recently developed field of compressed sensing, we show how a low-dimensional proxy for the Green's function can be constructed by backpropagating a small set of random receiver vectors. Then, the source can be located by performing a number of ``short'' correlations between this proxy and the projection of the recorded acoustic data in the compressed space. Numerical experiments in a Pekeris ocean waveguide are presented which demonstrate that this compressed version of MFP is as effective as traditional MFP even when the compression is significant. The results are particularly promising in the broadband regime where using as few as two random backpropagations per frequency performs almost as well as the traditional broadband MFP, but with the added benefit of generic applicability. That is, the computationally intensive backpropagations may be computed offline independently from the received signals, and may be reused to locate any source within the search grid area. This thesis also introduces a round-robin approach for multi-source localization based on Matched-Field Processing. Each new source location is estimated from the ambiguity function after nulling from the data vector the current source location estimates using a robust projection matrix. This projection matrix effectively minimizes mean-square energy near current source location estimates subject to a rank constraint that prevents excessive interference with sources outside of these neighborhoods. Numerical simulations are presented for multiple sources transmitting through a generic Pekeris ocean waveguide that illustrate the performance of the proposed approach which compares favorably against other previously published approaches. Furthermore, the efficacy with which randomized back-propagations may also be incorporated for computational advantage (as in the case of compressive parametric estimation) is also presented.
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