Evaluation of internal contamination levels after a radiological dispersal device using portal monitors

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Palmer, Randahl Christelle
Hertel, Nolan E.
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In the event of a radioactive dispersal device (RDD), the assessment of the internal contamination level of victims is necessary to determine if immediate medical follow-up is necessary. Thermo Scientific's TPM-903B Portal Monitor was investigated to determine if it is a suitable first cut screening tool for internal contamination assessment of victims. A portal monitor was chosen for this study because they are readily accessible, transportable, easy to assemble, and provide whole body count rates due to the detector size. The TPM-903B was modeled in Monte Carlo N-Particles Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP). This computational model was validated against the portal monitor's response to a series of measurements made with four point sources in a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slab box. Using the validated MCNP5 model and models of the MIRD male and female anthropomorphic phantoms, the response of the portal monitor was simulated for the inhalation and ingestion radionuclides from an RDD. Six representative phantoms were considered: Reference Male, Reference Female, Adipose Male, Adipose Female, Post-Menopausal Adipose Female, and 10-Year-Old Child. The biokinetics via Dose and Risk Calculation Software (DCAL) was implemented using both the inhalation and ingestion pathways to determine the radionuclide concentrations in the organs of the body which were then used to determine the count rate of the portal monitor as a function of time. Dose coefficients were employed to determine the count rate of the detector associated with specific dose limits. These count rates were then compiled into procedure sheets to be used by first responders during the triaging of victims following an RDD.
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