Space Systems Engineering Conference

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 36
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    National Security Space Enterprise Engineering
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Hagemeier, Hal
    Space provides critical capabilities for all sectors of our society. Today's world depends on space capabilities for weather and climate monitoring, remote sensing, scientific investigation and commercial and financial transactions. Defense and intelligence decision makers depend on our space programs for reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, warning, communications, global positioning and navigation. There is value to addressing national security space from an enterprise perspective. We can be more effective and efficient by appropriate enterprise engineering. An enterprise consists of people, processes, and technology interacting with each other and their environment to achieve goals. The mission of the National Security Space Office is to Integrate and coordinate defense and intelligence space activities to achieve unity of effort.
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    Design and Operation of Micro-Gravity Dynamics and Controls Laboratories
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Saenz-Otero, Alvar ; Miller, David W.
    The cost and complexity of maturing spacecraft dynamics and controls technology increases dramatically as the developer needs to demonstrate functionality in the space environment. Due to the high cost and infrequent opportunities to exercise such technology in space, dedicated free-flyers are developed which integrate a number of high risk technologies. As the budget expands and real or perceived risk is recognized, schedules extend and technologies are reduced or removed. Pushing advanced technology to its limits in an operational environment is fundamentally at odds with the risk-intolerant environment of space, leading to high costs and delayed testing. The MIT Space Systems Laboratory has taken an alternative approach by developing a family of dynamics and controls laboratories that have operated on Shuttle, Mir, and ISS. By designing the laboratories to not ensure safety through software design, as well as operating within the interior of these vehicles, the risk-tolerant and technically aggressive nature of a terrestrial laboratory has been emulated in the long duration micro-gravity of space. This paper will present the various laboratory design features that have led to the low cost of this technology maturation approach: including modularity; platforming; virtual presence; and facilitation of the iterative research process.
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    Simplifying Complex Problems with Systems Engineering Tools: a Lunar Architecture Analysis Case Study
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Percy, Thomas K.
    The analysis of lunar mission architectures is a complex problem dealing with many different propulsive elements and payloads moving through a series of locations to deliver humans and cargo to the moon. While the general systems engineering process is largely tied to the development of an end product, many of the tools commonly employed by systems engineers can be used to simplify these complex and abstract mission analyses. These tools can help the analyst gain a better overall understanding of the problem, its trends and possible solutions by better defining element interactions and functions. Sensitivity studies that employ trade tree analysis can give the engineer insight into performance trends and the benefits and penalties associated with certain design decisions. Finally, these tools can be implemented to help define the structure of simple, zero-level, Excel-based analysis tools that can assess broad, expansive trade spaces allowing mission planners to begin to formulate informed perceptions of mission performance trends. In this paper, the application of these system engineering tools and methodologies to the analysis of lunar mission architectures is discussed as well as some of the results of those analyses.
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    Ground System for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission Observatory Mission
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Tann, Hun K. ; Pages, Raymond J. ; Silva, Christopher J.
    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has recently completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) of a new dual Ka and S-band ground system for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. SDO, the flagship mission under the new Living with a Star Program Office, is one of GSFC's most recent large-scale in-house missions. The observatory is scheduled for launch in August 2008 from the Kennedy Space Center aboard an Atlas-5 expendable launch vehicle. Unique to this mission is an extremely challenging science data capture requirement. The mission is required to capture 95% of all observation opportunities with a completeness of 99.99%. Due to the continuous, high volume (150 Mbps) science data rate, no on-board storage of science data will be implemented on this mission. With the observatory placed in a geo-synchronous orbit at 36,000 kilometers within view of dedicated ground stations, the ground system will in effect implement a “real-time” science data pipeline with appropriate data accounting, data storage, data distribution, data recovery, and automated system failure detection and correction to keep the science data flowing continuously to three separate Science Operations Centers (SOCs). Data storage rates of ~ 42 Tera-bytes per month are expected. The Mission Operations Center (MOC) will be based at GSFC and is designed to be highly automated. Three SOCs will share in the observatory operations, each operating their own instrument. Remote operations of a multi-antenna ground station in White Sands, New Mexico from the MOC is part of the design baseline.
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    Systems Engineering Principles Applied to Basic Research and Development
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Anderson, Norman C. ; Nolte, William
    Systems engineering principles and processes have grown out of the need to effectively manage complex programs, many of them for the acquisition of operational military systems. These multi-billion dollar programs truly benefit from the application of structured systems engineering principles, and the supporting processes have been finetuned to maximize their benefit in a requirements driven environment. Research and development efforts, on the other-hand, have typically avoided application of structured processes, primarily due to a perception that such structure inhibits the creative processes that are so crucial to the discovery and development of new technologies. This paper proposes that systems engineering principles and creative discovery are not mutually exclusive environments, and that, in fact, appropriately tailored systems engineering processes can enable and enhance scientific discovery. An example of this concept will be presented for the principles of risk management, including application to basic research, applied research and development, and technology demonstrations.
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    Planetary Probe Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems: Technology Advancements, Cost, and Mass Evaluations with Application to Future Titan Exploration Missions
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Ong, Chester ; Bieber, Ben S. ; Needham, Jennifer ; Huo, Bing ; Magee, Angela ; Montuori, Craig ; Ko, Chiwan ; Peterson, Craig
    Heritage is the double-edged sword in space systems engineering. Reliance on heritage can ensure redundant success but will diminish advancements in science and technology that are integral to the success of future missions. Current reliance on heritage flight hardware is due to the absolute cost ceilings and short development timetables. Since the pre-phase A design stage mandates that system engineers establish complex and crucial decisions governing the mission design, system engineers would greatly benefit from an apples-to-apples comparison of the mass and cost benefits from different technologies across a range of performance parameters. The Cost and Mass Evaluation of Technology (CoMET) removes the “hand-waving” arguments in EDL technology benefits, and identifies possible points of diminishing returns for the advancement of specific technologies. Ultimately, CoMET: EDL is a design-to-cost model that answers the following question: Would further technology development just be “polishing the cannonball?” EDL sub-systems include, but are not limited to, aeroshell and thermal protection entry systems; parachute systems; powered descent and landing systems; power systems; and in-situ exploration systems of aerobots. CoMET explores the technology trades between mass and cost in the collaborative engineering environment regarding key technology areas and launch vehicle considerations. To demonstrate CoMET’s potential in confronting future mission concepts that require new operational approaches and technology advancements, a planetary probe mission is designed around the exploration of Saturn’s moon, Titan. In January 14, 2005, the planetary probe Huygens befell Titan’s surface in search of life’s origins. On the Titan-Huygens probe, the limitations of communications relay geometry and battery power vastly restricted the operational time, scientific goals, and total returns of this mission. Without the improvement of battery efficiency or the evolution of nuclear power systems, state of the art technology will always restrict planetary scientists to short-duration missions and miniscule data sampling. Furthermore, to capitalize on each planet’s or moon’s unique environment, future probes will require innovative systems of in-situ exploration, such as blimps for mobility in dense atmospheres. This paper explores mass, cost, and technology trade-offs of an airship among several EDL technologies within general mission requirements of a mission to Titan.
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    Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicles a Solution for Space Access
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Furfaro, James A. ; Johnson, Dennis G.
    President George W. Bush set the bold vision and charter for NASA to take the next steps in the exploration of our solar system in his announcement on 14 January 2004. This exploration initiative provides unique opportunities for the space community to work closely with NASA to accomplish tasks that have been planned since the Apollo era. In order for the NASA exploration initiative to be successful in today’s environment, it must be reliable, affordable, and sustainable within a realistic schedule. Trade studies indicate that a two stage, solid / liquid configuration using available heritage propulsion components is the most effective solution to meet NASA’s schedule for crew access to space and the International Space Station (ISS). Facilities and manpower are in place to process and refurbish stage components maintaining a man-rated launch vehicle infrastructure. A heavy lift vehicle configuration can be tailored to support Moon and Mars missions utilizing existing components. Lift capability can be expanded with five segment RSRM derivative boosters and an extended external tank. Shuttle derived launch vehicles provide the most reliable and effective solution to meet NASA’s exploration vision schedule.
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    XSS-10 Mission Results and Lessons Learned
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Davis, Thomas M. ; Melanson, David
    The Air Force Research Laboratory established the Micro-Satellite Technology Development Program (XSS series of flight demonstrations) to leverage micro-satellite technologies with the aim of providing solutions to Air Force future space mission capabilities. XSS-10 was the first in this series and was intended to demonstrate key operational concepts and technologies relating to close-in satellite inspection operations. The XSS-10 program began in December 1997 and launched from Cape Canaveral on 29 January 2003 attached to the second stage of a Delta II. Eleven orbits later the XSS-10 micro-sat ejected from the orbiting Delta second stage and successfully completed a brief series of semi-autonomous maneuver and inspection operations using the Delta second stage as the RSO. The mission objectives of XSS-10 were to demonstrate autonomous navigation, proximity operations, and inspection of a Resident Space Object (RSO). XSS-10, a 31 kilogram micro-satellite launched as a secondary on a Delta II expendable launch vehicle carrying a GPS satellite. XSS-10 was equipped with a visible camera, a star sensor, GPS receiver and a mini SGLS system, all specially built for this program. In addition, a visible camera was also mounted on the second stage to observe the release of the microsatellite and observe its maneuvers. The XSS-10 micro satellite was released from the Delta II second stage after the GPS satellite was released. Operating autonomously, on a preplanned course, XSS-10 performed its mission of navigating around the Delta II second stage. Autonomously navigating around the second stage, at preplanned positions, the microsatellite took images of the second stage and sent them back in real time. During these demonstrations, XSS-10 demonstrated responsive checkout of the microsatellite and all of its subsystems, autonomous navigation on a preplanned course and a variety of algorithms and mission operations that are critical for future mission operations. This paper will discuss the results of the mission and post mission analysis of the XSS-10 space flight.
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    An Auction Algorithm for Optimal Satellite Refueling
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Salazar, Alexandros ; Tsiotras, Panagiotis
    Satellite refueling can extend the lifetime of satellite constellations. Peer-to-peer satellite refueling in particular has the potential to make the most efficient use of the fuel contained in the constellation by redistributing it as on a need-to basis. In this paper we present an alternative implementation of P2P refueling, namely pairing up fuel sufficient satellites with fuel deficient satellites so that they can refuel each other and guarantee that each satellite has more than a certain baseline amount of fuel. To solve this problem we make use of the auction algorithm, which is implemented in a distributed context. Asynchronous bids have been used to illustrate the robustness of the algorithm.
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    Deep Impact Comet Encounter: Design, Development and Operation of the Big Event at Tempel 1
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Rocca, Jennifer ; Wissler, Steven ; Kubitschek, Daniel G.
    Deep Impact Comet Encounter was a mission to crash the Impactor spacecraft and its Impactor Targeting Sensor (ITS) into Comet Tempel 1 and record the event via a Flyby spacecraft. The Deep Impact spacecrafts, Flyby and Impactor, were launched together aboard a Delta II rocket from Kennedy Space Flight Center on January 12, 2005. Impactor ended its almost six-month mission by successfully transmitting back images of the comet as it plowed into the surface of Tempel 1 on July 4, 2005. Flyby successfully transmitted back the first image of the Impactor’s collision with Tempel 1 via its High Resolution Imager (HRI), the largest telescope ever to be deployed into deep space