Space Systems Engineering Conference

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 36
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    Collaborative Mission Design at NASA Langley Research Center
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-09) Gough, Kerry M. ; Allen, B. Danette ; Amundsen, Ruth M. ; Langley Research Center ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab
    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed and tested two facilities dedicated to increasing efficiency in key mission design processes, including payload design, mission planning, and implementation plan development, among others. The Integrated Design Center (IDC) is a state-of-the art concurrent design facility which allows scientists and spaceflight engineers to produce project designs and mission plans in a real-time collaborative environment, using industry-standard physics-based development tools and the latest communication technology. The Mission Simulation Lab (MiSL), a virtual reality (VR) facility focused on payload and project design, permits engineers to quickly translate their design and modeling output into enhanced three-dimensional models and then examine them in a realistic full-scale virtual environment. The authors were responsible for envisioning both facilities and turning those visions into fully operational mission design resources at LaRC with multiple advanced capabilities and applications. In addition, the authors have created a synergistic interface between these two facilities. This combined functionality is the Interactive Design and Simulation Center (IDSC), a “meta-facility” which offers project teams a powerful array of highly advanced tools, permitting them to rapidly produce project designs while maintaining the integrity of the input from every discipline expert on the project. The concept-to-flight mission support provided by IDSC has shown improved inter- and intra-team communication and a reduction in the resources required for proposal development, requirements definition, and design effort.
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    Design and Systems Engineering of AFRL's Demonstration and Sciences Experiment
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Cohen, Dan ; Spanjers, Gregory ; Winter, James ; Ginet, Gregory ; Dichter, Bronislaw ; Adler, Aaron ; Tolliver, Martin ; Guarnieri, Jason ; Air Force Research Laboratory (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio). Space Vehicles Directorate ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab
    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicles Directorate has developed the Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) mission to research technologies needed to significantly advance Department of Defense (DoD) capability to operate spacecraft in the harsh radiation environment of medium-earth orbits (MEO). The ability to operate effectively in the MEO environment significantly increases the DoD’s capability to field space systems that provide persistent global targeting-grade space surveillance, high-speed satellite-based communication, lower-cost GPS navigation, and protection from space weather on a responsive satellite platform. The three DSX experiments areas are: 1. Wave Particle Interaction Experiment (WPIx): Researching the physics of very-low-frequency (VLF) transmissions in the magnetosphere and characterizing the feasibility of natural and manmade VLF waves to reduce space radiation; 2. Space Weather Experiment (SWx): Characterizing and modeling the space radiation environment in MEO, an orbital regime attractive for future DoD and commercial missions; 3. Space Environmental Effects (SFx): Researching and characterizing the space weather effects on spacecraft electronics and materials. DSX uses a modular design that allows for launch either as a primary satellite on a conventional launcher, such as a Minotaur, or as a secondary payload on a larger rocket, such as the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). An overview of the DSX spacecraft design, requirements, systems engineering approach, bus subsystems, payload designs, and experiments will be described.
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    Systems Engineering Principles Applied to Basic Research and Development
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Anderson, Norman C. ; Nolte, William ; Air Force Research Laboratory (Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio) ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab
    Systems engineering principles and processes have grown out of the need to effectively manage complex programs, many of them for the acquisition of operational military systems. These multi-billion dollar programs truly benefit from the application of structured systems engineering principles, and the supporting processes have been finetuned to maximize their benefit in a requirements driven environment. Research and development efforts, on the other-hand, have typically avoided application of structured processes, primarily due to a perception that such structure inhibits the creative processes that are so crucial to the discovery and development of new technologies. This paper proposes that systems engineering principles and creative discovery are not mutually exclusive environments, and that, in fact, appropriately tailored systems engineering processes can enable and enhance scientific discovery. An example of this concept will be presented for the principles of risk management, including application to basic research, applied research and development, and technology demonstrations.
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    Ground System for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission Observatory Mission
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Tann, Hun K. ; Pages, Raymond J. ; Silva, Christopher J. ; Goddard Space Flight Center ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab
    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has recently completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) of a new dual Ka and S-band ground system for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Mission. SDO, the flagship mission under the new Living with a Star Program Office, is one of GSFC's most recent large-scale in-house missions. The observatory is scheduled for launch in August 2008 from the Kennedy Space Center aboard an Atlas-5 expendable launch vehicle. Unique to this mission is an extremely challenging science data capture requirement. The mission is required to capture 95% of all observation opportunities with a completeness of 99.99%. Due to the continuous, high volume (150 Mbps) science data rate, no on-board storage of science data will be implemented on this mission. With the observatory placed in a geo-synchronous orbit at 36,000 kilometers within view of dedicated ground stations, the ground system will in effect implement a “real-time” science data pipeline with appropriate data accounting, data storage, data distribution, data recovery, and automated system failure detection and correction to keep the science data flowing continuously to three separate Science Operations Centers (SOCs). Data storage rates of ~ 42 Tera-bytes per month are expected. The Mission Operations Center (MOC) will be based at GSFC and is designed to be highly automated. Three SOCs will share in the observatory operations, each operating their own instrument. Remote operations of a multi-antenna ground station in White Sands, New Mexico from the MOC is part of the design baseline.
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    Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Independent Performance Evaluation
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-09) Young, David Anthony ; Krevor, Zachary C. ; Tanner, Christopher ; Thompson, Robert W. ; Wilhite, Alan W. ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab
    The crew launch vehicle is a new NASA launch vehicle design proposed by the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) to provide reliable transportations of humans and cargo from the earth’s surface to low earth orbit (LEO). ESAS was charged with the task of looking at the options for returning to the moon in support of the Vision for Space Exploration. The ESAS results, announced in September 2005, favor the use of shuttle-derived launch vehicles for the goals of servicing the International Space Station after the retirement of the STS and supporting the proposed lunar exploration program. The first launch vehicle to be developed is the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will be operational by 2012, and will be derived from a four segment Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) and an upper-stage powered by an expendable version of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The CLV will be capable of sending approximately 60,000 lbs to LEO in the form of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as well as a Service Module (SM) to support the CEV. The purpose of this paper is to compare the published CLV numbers with those computed using the design methodology currently used in the Space System Design Laboratory (SSDL) at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The disciplines used in the design include aerodynamics, configuration, propulsion design, trajectory, mass properties, cost, operations, reliability and safety. Each of these disciplines was computed using a conceptual design tool similar to that used in industry. These disciplines were then combined into an integrated design process and used to minimize the gross weight of the CLV. The final performance, reliability, and cost information are then compared with the original ESAS results and the discrepancies are analyzed. Once the design process was completed, a parametric Excel based model is created from the point design. This model can be used to resize CLV for changing system metrics (such as payload) as well as changing technologies.
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    Using Systems Engineering to Develop Responsive Logistics for Future Space Missions
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-09) Bennett, Gisele ; O'Neill, Gary S. ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab ; Georgia Tech Research Institute. Logistics and Maintenance Applied Research Center ; Georgia Tech Research Institute
    The goal of establishing a long term manned presence on the Moon and eventual exploration of Mars brings the practice of logistics to a whole new level. We describe an approach to logistics as a 'system of systems' that integrates logistic system development with vehicle design and mission planning, and provides the basis for a data management architecture that can provide Health Monitoring for the entire logistic system using data from enterprise systems and other resources.
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    The Apollo Lunar Orbit Rendezvous Architecture Decision Revisited
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-09) Reeves, David M. ; Scher, Michael D. ; Wilhite, Alan W. ; Stanley, Douglas O. ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab ; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    The 1962 Apollo architecture mode decision process was revisited with modern analysis and systems engineer tools to determine driving selection criteria and technology/operational mode design decisions that may be used for NASA’s current Space Exploration program. Results of the study agreed with the Apollo selection of the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous mode based on the technology maturity and politics in 1962. Using today’s greater emphasis on human safety and improvements in technology and design maturity, a slight edge may be given to the direct lunar mode over lunar orbit rendezvous. Also, the NOVA direct mode and Earth orbit rendezvous mode are not competitive based any selection criteria. Finally, reliability and development, operations, and production costs are major drivers in today’s decision process.
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    An Auction Algorithm for Optimal Satellite Refueling
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-10) Salazar, Alexandros ; Tsiotras, Panagiotis ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab ; Georgia Institute of Technology. School of Aerospace Engineering
    Satellite refueling can extend the lifetime of satellite constellations. Peer-to-peer satellite refueling in particular has the potential to make the most efficient use of the fuel contained in the constellation by redistributing it as on a need-to basis. In this paper we present an alternative implementation of P2P refueling, namely pairing up fuel sufficient satellites with fuel deficient satellites so that they can refuel each other and guarantee that each satellite has more than a certain baseline amount of fuel. To solve this problem we make use of the auction algorithm, which is implemented in a distributed context. Asynchronous bids have been used to illustrate the robustness of the algorithm.
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    Space Systems Engineering Professional Development and Certification
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-09) Fisher, Gerard H. ; Aerospace Corporation ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab
    In the mid-1990s, the Federal Government pursued "Acquisition Reform," which resulted in significantly reduced government technical oversight of contractors. This caused less technical personnel to be hired in the government program offices for the last ten years. Recent investigations of space problems have recognized the need to revitalize the systems engineering workforce within the government program offices. Two years ago, the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) embarked on the development of a professional development and certification program for space systems engineering. The NRO workforce is heterogeneous; it is comprised of military and civilian members of all DoD services as well as several intelligence community agencies. Our objective was to develop a program that maximized the synergy with parent-agency programs and avoided any redundant training requirements. A three-level certification program was established that required technical education, systems engineering experience, and systems engineering training. The training selected is a combination of existing NRO courses, offthe- shelf academic courses, commercial training classes, and newly developed classes. After the first year, over 375 employees have attended at least one training class and we are certifying systems engineers at the rate of 10-12 per month. The success of this program has led to potential expansion into other areas of the government.
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    System Architecture Tools and Assumptions
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005-11-09) Reeves, David M. ; Scher, Michael D. ; Shidner, Jeremy ; Thomas, Paige D. ; Bucher, Dean ; Roithmayr, Carlos ; National Institute of Aerospace ; Georgia Institute of Technology. School of Aerospace Engineering ; Georgia Institute of Technology. Space Systems Design Lab
    Discussion of various system architecture tools and assumptions available to modify existing architectures for new requirements and mission objectives. This study started from proven Apollo concept and adjusted it for new requirements and mission objectives. New technologies were included to decrease size and cost. A crew size trade study is presented to demonstrate how mass size, propulsion size, and trajectory are calculated for an unmanned and up to four man crew in lunar exploration missions