Globelics Conference

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 411
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    Strategic Issues Related to the Technological Parks in Brazil
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2006-10) Vedovello, Connie ; Judice, Valéria ; Maculan, Anne-Marie ; Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (Brazil) ; Pedro Leopoldo Foundation ; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
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    Linkage between Indigenous Agriculture and Sustainable Development – Evidences from Two Hill Communities in Northeast India
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-07) Pulamte, Lalsiemlien ; National Institute of Science, Technology, and Development Studies (India) ; Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (India)
    Sustainable food production system is the key to sustainable development especially for hill communities where agriculture is the mainstay of economy. History shows that human societies that can protect their livelihood-based natural resources are able to sustain themselves. So even today we find several indigenous communities obtaining sustained and adequate income/returns from their agriculture because of sustainability inbuilt in it. Besides production of food, proper protection of the environments through sustainable practices is always the inherent accompanying objective of agriculture in such communities. The paper argues that indigenous knowledge and practices formed the basis of sustainable development particularly in hill agrarian communities. The paper draws evidences from the cases of the Apatani and the Angami tribal communities of the Northeastern Region of India. Using interview schedules, data were collected from practising farmers and government officials working in the areas concerned. Over the years, the Apatani farmers are able to obtain sustained agricultural yields from their terrace wet rice fields by following their indigenous agricultural practices and community traditions. Their agricultural production is also strongly linked to the proper management of the forests around them. The Angami community, by utilising their traditional knowledge on alder trees, are able to rejuvenate their degraded jhum (slash and burn agriculture) lands and put them into more productive and sustainable uses. It is also revealed in the paper that organisational innovations are required as well to make use of the technical innovations already present.
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    Knowledge networks, nodes and new organisational forms
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Boden, Rebecca ; Nedeva, Maria ; University of Wales Institute, Cardiff. Institute for Social Innovation ; Manchester Institute of Innovation Research
    Science has a matrix of research 'space' and 'fields'. Research space is a virtual environment comprising knowledge producers, users, funders and policy makers. Research 'fields' enclose the cognitive architectonic of science and cut across organisational and disciplinary boundaries. Research fields and space can be conceived of as in a matrix relationship. Fluidity between space and fields offers the prospect of the creation of new organisational forms which escape the neoliberalisation of science. We argue that university science might best be performed as part of open systems of innovation, in which innovative organisations work in ongoing partnerships to share knowledge in such a way as to generate sustainable streams of innovation. Open innovation practices require that attention is paid to the forms of governance, ownership and management that would be suitable for the various organisations that might populate such processes. It can be assumed that existing forms of governance, ownership and management might not necessarily be suitable, especially if they are predicated on conceptions such as market competition, arms-length relationships and commercial confidentiality - the types of organisational forms that the UK government has promoted for publicly funded science for some years. Recent innovation research identifies the importance of a variety of forms of networks as being central to sustaining the innovation process. In this paper we extend notions of open innovation systems and consider whether knowledge production might be moved away from the privatised, commercialised, competitive pressures towards an open, collaborative and cooperative process.
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    Innovation Activity in the Indian Software Industry
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Bhattacharya, Sujit ; Lal, Kashmiri ; National Institute of Science, Technology, and Development Studies (India) ; Jawaharlal Nehru University. School of Social Sciences ; Jawaharlal Nehru University. Centre for Studies in Science Policy
    The study primarily investigated whether there has been a tangible shift in the activities of the Indian software firms towards higher end of the value chain and factors that helped the firms to make transitions. The objectives were examined by broad examination of thirty nine software firms and deeper investigation based on case study of three firms derived from the above selected firms. It was found that firms are active in different areas/subareas of software industry including the embedded software segment. The firms obtained various types of quality certifications but these certifications were mainly restricted to process standards. Acquisitions and joint ventures were exposing firms to new knowledge, new hardware and software platforms. It has also helped the firms to move into niche areas and enter new markets. Linkages between firms and with academia were also important factors in firm’s enhancement. From the case study it was possible to discern how the firms are developing capabilities. The three firms show that they have evolved over a period of time, moving from simple to complex operations mainly through incremental innovations. The study shows that among the thirty nine firms, a few firms have significantly moved up the value chain. Nevertheless, it is important as it shows that a few of them have broken away from the mould and achieved success.
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    Food safety regulations and trade effects: The case of Indian seafood industry with special reference to Kerala, South India
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Somasekharan, Jayasekhar ; Centre for Development Studies (Trivandrum, India)
    This study represents an attempt to estimate the effects of SPS measures in terms of trade elasticity of regulations and competitiveness of exports. In spite of the generalized acknowledgment of growing liberalization of trade between countries, there are still numerous obstacles to trade, more of the non-tariff type. This study aims to contribute to the literature on quantifying the economic impact of health and environmental regulations expressed in the form of SPS measures on international trade in agro-food products, by taking Indian seafood exports case study. The gravity analysis, complemented with the CMS model, helped to obtain an insight into the overall dynamics of the export markets, trade flows and competitiveness of fish and fishery products (aggregate level), shrimp and cephalopods. For the regulatory variable, the maximum residue limit (MRL) on cadmium in the model is used as an independent variable. Thus, it was made much insightful in understanding the relationship between trade restrictiveness of regulatory stringency and export competitiveness of the commodities. A detailed study on micro level dynamics of Kerala seafood export sector has been carried out, particularly to understand what the industry level changes are experienced during the food safety regime The results indicate that regulations on cadmium appear to be moderately trade restrictive. At the same time results are divergent at the disaggregate level, which is significant from the point of view of policy. The most important aspect of the existing chain in Kerala’s seafood sector is the gradual disappearance of the independent pre processing sector which has been an important stake holder of the seafood value chain of Kerala. The pre processing node of the value chain is getting integrated to the processing sector causing a major restructuring of the existing value chain.
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    Development of a measure for technological capability in the information and communications technology industry in Nigeria
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Aderemi, H. O. ; Oyebisi, T. O. ; Adeniyi, A. A. ; Obafemi Awolowo University
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    R&D, inégalités et imperfections du marché du capital
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Esso, Loesse J. ; Université de Paris I: Panthéon-Sorbonne. Maison des sciences économiques
    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the Nelson-Phelps e¤ect in a technologically backward country. We build a two-period overlapping generations model of heterogenous agents. We suppose that agents inherit ability and a technique of production from their parents. We show that there is an endogenous threshold which allows to distinguish R&D innovators and implementators that produce intermediate goods with lagged productivity. We show that capital markets impact economic growth and convergence towards technology.
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    Politics of technology and economic development: Tracing the roots of the absence of NSI in the Philippines
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) King, Elisa B. ; University of Alberta
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    A study of the factors influencing knowledge management within inter-organizational projects
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Li, Huiping ; Chen, Jin ; Yu, Xiangzhen ; Mei, Xin ; Ramapo College ; Zhejiang University
    Modern management theories agree that the effective use of knowledge management (KM) is one of the key determinants in the performance of a business organization. KM permits a firm to accurately measure its adaptability and competencies and predict its survival in the market place. There are two types of KM: one that focuses upon measuring the performance of a single organization (known as "internal KM") and another that measures performance across organizational boundaries (known as "cross-organizational KM"). This research deals only with cross-organizational KM, a topic that has received scant attention in prior studies. The research focuses upon the factors that are measured to produce a statistical analysis of performance in cross-organizational collaborations. The study concludes that four clusters of factors have the greatest influence on the success of interorganizational projects. These clusters relate to: knowledge reserve, corporate culture/institution, communication and cooperation, and the characteristics of the specific project.
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    Innovative strategies and their impact on the National Innovation System dynamics
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-07) Suárez, Diana ; Centro de Estudios sobre Ciencia, Desarrollo y Educación Superior
    Innovation is defined as a social and iterative process; as a consequence, nobody innovates in an isolated way (Lundvall, 1992). However, when analyzing innovation surveys, evidence seems to contradict theory. Both in developing countries and in developed ones, the rate of linkages established among the different agents of the National Innovation System is low (Anlló & Suárez, 2008; Suárez, 2007; Tether, 2000) Particularly in Latin American countries, a historically lack of articulation between firms and science and technology institutions has been observed (Lugones & Suárez, 2006). The present document is an attempt to go deeper in understanding the linkages determinants and innovation dynamics. Therefore, an analysis regarding the linkages between firms and the other agents of the National Innovation System for the Argentine case is developed here. This study is part of a broader project framed within a research related to the doctorate thesis by the one who write in here, under the supervision of Gustavo Lugones. The main hypothesis of the doctorate project considers that there exist differentiated behaviours in respect of competitiveness search. In that sense, innovation, as a strategy, is just one of many possibilities. Moreover, despite sustainable in the long term, innovation is many times unprofitable in the short one, especially in less developed countries where the market failures and macroeconomic instability are not the exception but the rule. This paper is also the continuity of a project already presented in Globelics México 2008, where innovative behaviours of the Argentine manufacturer firms were identified and characterized (Lugones, Suárez & Moldován, 2008). In this study, a group of firms with a virtuous innovative strategy was identified and this group was different from the rest because of the intensity and continuity of innovative expenditures. It was also possible to identify that another group –not that small- of Argentine firms could survive to one of the worst economic crises with no efforts at all on innovation activities. The econometrical analysis showed that there is a positive relation between expenditure intensity and labour productivity together with a positive relation between this intensity and salaries (Lugones, Suárez & Moldován, 2008). So, because this innovative firms are the ones that obtain the best results regarding performance and income, what is expected to know here is whether that particular innovative dynamic could be related to a particular linkages setting or not. Then, the objective of this paper is to analyze of the first group of firms mentioned above. It aims at studying those firms and their relationship between with the National Innovation System. This does not imply giving less importance to the interaction and dynamic of non innovative firms, which are, certainly, part of the broader study. What is expected here is to demonstrate how a particular innovative dynamic impacts on the rest of the system. If these firms with a virtuous strategy are developing a more technological complex innovation then to them to require a deeper articulation with the knowledge supply and a bigger feedback of their supply chain is expectable. The first ones because of their condition of suppliers of one of the key inputs (knowledge) and the latter for being either suppliers of raw materials and machinery or recipients of that innovations. If these hypotheses are true, then if those behaviours are fostered to combine entrepreneurial development with social profitability by the creation of synergies in the national innovation system (through linkages) could be possible. The document is structured in three parts. After this short introduction, in section 1 the dataset and the methodology are presented. The results and main findings of the model are discussed in section 2. Finally, some conclusions are provided.