Globelics Conference

Series Type
Event Series
Associated Organizations
Associated Organizations
Organizational Unit
Organizational Unit

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 411
  • Item
    Identification of policy problems in systems of innovation through diagnostic analysis
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Edquist, Charles ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    ‘Activities’ in innovation systems are the determinants of the development and diffusion of innovations. (Examples are R&D, provision of organizations and institutions, financing of innovations, incubation, etc.) These activities are partly performed by private organizations and partly by public ones. Those performed by public organizations constitute innovation policy. As a basis for innovation policy, the problems in the systems must be identified. These ‘systemic problems’ or ‘policy problems’ can be identified only by means of comparing existing innovation systems with each other – over time and space. On this basis the division of labor between public and private organizations must be analyzed. This division of labor varies between countries and over time. To determine this division of labor is a matter of strategic choices in innovation policy-making. This paper will be focused upon the identification of systemic problems through diagnostic analysis.
  • Item
    Building systems of innovation in less developed countries: The role of intermediate organizations
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Szogs, Astrid ; Cummings, Andrew ; Chaminade, Cristina ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of intermediate organizations in supporting different forms of interactive learning and capability building in small scale business initiatives in emerging innovation systems in developing countries, using data from Tanzania and El Salvador. It is argued that different types of intermediate organizations have played key roles in linking marginalized economic actors, to sources of knowledge and other resources that are essential for capability upgrading and innovation in both traditional and more differentiated economic activities. They thus play an important role in linking innovative activity, to maintaining and upgrading the quality of existing jobs in crisis, generating new ones where opportunities arise, providing income crucial for family wellbeing in countries characterized by low levels of human development and high levels of inequality.The paper is structured as follows. After the introduction the concepts of systems of innovation, interactive learning and intermediaries in less developed countries are reviewed. This is followed by a presentation of the data and methodology, which is then analyzed in the following section. The paper ends with some conclusions on the role of intermediate organisations in linking actors, enabling technology and knowledge diffusion and building innovation systems in less developed countries.
  • Item
    Persistence and structural change in the technological specialization of Brazil
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Urraca-Ruiz, Ana ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    Since the beginning of the nineties, Brazil has been going through a process of trade liberalization. The effects of this process have not been fully under analysis. Most of the literature that deals with this issue has a macroeconomic approach, especially those that concern the trade balance and its fiscal and monetary consequences and the impacts these features have on the growth process. The assessment of the microeconomic consequences of the growth process, apart from being scarce, are limited to studies on the competitiveness of industrial structures, on the productive re-structuring and on consequences over the structure of domestic markets. Trade liberalization may however have deeper consequences on structural transformation than those that have been under investigation and may have effects on the productive specialization of the country (Myro and Alvarez 2003) and particularly on technological competences. A country's technological competences are closely related to its productive and commercial base. Productive transformations may therefore affect the technological structure of a country. This paper aims to investigate changes in the technological specialization of Brazil and to draw a profile of its technological competences before and after the trade liberalization. The paper is organized in four sections apart this introduction and the final conclusions. In the first section, the paper presents a survey of the literature on the determinants of a country's technological specialization and the consequences trade liberalization may have on the allocation of technological efforts across technical fields. The second section describes the database. The third section is dedicated to the analysis of the Brazilian technological specialization through the undertaking of three analyses: (1) the changes in the revealed technological advantages (RTA) as indicator of the technological opportunity; (2) the relative position of Brazil with respect to three groups of countries (leaders, Asian followers and Latin-American followers); and (3) a shift-share analysis of the components of the technological structural change.
  • Item
    National technology transfer centers: An efficient policy instrument to capitalize university research findings?
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Tang, Ming Feng ; Matt, Mireille ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    This paper will examine whether national technology transfer centers (NTTCs) function as an effective policy instrument in promoting the commercialization of university research findings. On the basis of 7 sampled universities, we place our research focus on the role of NTTCs, the performance of NTTCs and the determinants of effectiveness of NTTCs. Academic publications, patents, technology transfer income and revenue generated by spinoffs are used as indicators to assess the effectiveness of NTTCs. Our qualitative and quantitative study provides evidence that NTTCs are not an effective policy tool in accelerating the commercialization of university inventions. Universities without NTTCs can achieve the same or even greater success than universities with NTTCs. We suggest that universities should provide an attractive reward system and automony to NTTCs for stimulating their efforts in marketing patented technology.
  • Item
    Perspectives for the biodiesel production and the Brazilian family farmers in the semi-arid region
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Garcia, Junior Ruiz ; Romeiro, Ademar ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    The demand expansion for biofuels from oleaginous plants (biodiesel) can effectively represent an opportunity of employment and income generation for the small family farms in the Northeastern semi-arid region as intended by the current government. This is due to some arboreal and shrubby plants whose characteristics are favorable to oil production that may foster family farms in terms of hand labor availability. There are, however, two main obstacles which are not appropriately addressed by the current official incentive policies: the first one concerns the fragility of productive structure of the family farms in the region, specially the lack of the producers’ self organization capacity; the second one is related to agronomic problems of the main crops still to be properly addressed by additional research investment. The solution for both limitations demands a great effort of rural extension and agronomic research.
  • Item
    Complementary innovation systems for catching-up in China
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Tang, Ming Feng ; Llerena, Patrick ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    This paper discusses what kind of national innovation system (NIS) is built up in China and whether the NIS is helpful for China to catch up. Our research methodology is based on the combination of new growth theory with the NIS theory and our involvement in OECD research project about Chinese NIS. We find that Chinese NIS is composed of two complementary systems, namely FDI-based innovation system and indigenous innovation system. Both systems are found to have a positive influence on attaining China's catching-up objective but indigenous innovation system seems not as influential as FDI-based innovation system for the moment. We suggest that Chinese NIS needs to be further shaped for improving the absorption and innovation capability of domestic firms and for strengthening university-enterprise-research institute interactions.
  • Item
    Technological capability and development
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Sampath, Padmashree Gehl ; Oyeyinka, Banji ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
  • Item
    Open Innovation in South Africa: case studies in nanotechnology, biotechnology, and open source software development
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-10-08) Gastrow, Michael ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    In the era of open innovation, the capability to conduct collaborative research and development has become a key indicator of absorptive capacity and innovation competitiveness. However, the literature addressing open innovation has a focus on developed economies. New evidence from the South African National R&D Survey, together with supplementary data, make it possible to gain a greater understanding of the structure of open innovation in nanotechnology, biotechnology and open source software in the South African context. Findings from a comparative analysis include: the identification of collaboration-intensive R&D networks whose structures are influenced by the characteristics of each technological platform; linkages between localized innovation networks and global innovation networks; and distinct patterns of expenditure, sectoral distribution and geographical location characterizing each of these technologies. The paper concludes with some suggestions for policy applications for these findings as well as directions for further research.
  • Item
    Scientific mobility and development: Toward a socioeconomic conceptual framework
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Woolley, Richard ; Cañibano, Carolina ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts ; IIES Francisco de Vitoria
  • Item
    International product development partnerships: Innovation for better health?
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-09) Hanlin, Rebecca ; School of Public Policy ; Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts
    In developing countries international product development partnerships engage in health product innovation activities such as clinical trial research. This paper discusses how one such partnership's (International AIDS Vaccine Initiative) activities build meso level institutional knowledge-based capacity between, and within, the Kenyan national level partners. The paper will discuss the way knowledge is exchanged and how linkages are made between those involved in scientific research or innovation activities and those involved in healthcare activities within and beyond the partnership. This research provides evidence of where these two fields of activity (innovation and health) need each other in order for AIDS vaccine clinical research to take place. This paper outlines examples of this interconnectivity before discussing the questions this raises for the conceptualisation of the IAVI partnership, how this fits into a wider discussion regarding the definition of health innovation and how it is promoted within national and international policy spheres.