Institute for Information Security & Privacy Cybersecurity Lecture Series

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 149
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    Cyberpsychology & Future of Cybersecurity Research
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-04-15) Crooks, Courtney
    Cyberpsychology is the interdisciplinary study of the psychology of cyberspace and those who use the tools of cyberspace. This field identifies and explores the overlap between online and offline life through the application of psychological concepts and research. Key concepts that will be discussed briefly include cyber presence, digital identity, online disinhibition effect, digital deviance, dark personalities, and deception in cyberspace. Psychologically informed conceptualizations of cyber behavior may inform cybersecurity researchers, practitioners, and decision makers with insight about psychological motivations and vulnerabilities, and support better understanding of how to develop and implement effective cybersecurity tools, measures, policy and legislation.
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    Protecting Intellectual Property in Additive Manufacturing Systems Against Optical Side-Channel Attacks
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-04-08) Liang, Sizhuang
    Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is gaining popularity in industry sectors, such as aerospace, automobile, medicine, and construction. As the market value of the AM industry grows, the potential risk of cyberattacks on AM systems is increasing. One of the high value assets in AM systems is the intellectual property, which is basically the blueprint of a manufacturing process. In this lecture, we present an optical side-channel attack to extract intellectual property in AM systems via deep learning. We found that the deep neural network can successfully recover the path for an arbitrary printing process. By using data augmentation, the neural network can tolerate a certain level of variation in the position and angle of the camera as well as the lighting conditions. The neural network can intelligently perform interpolation and accurately recover the coordinates of an image that is not seen in the training dataset. To defend against the optical side-channel attack, we propose to use an optical projector to artificially inject carefully crafted optical noise onto the printing area. We found that existing noise generation algorithms can effortlessly defeat a naive attacker who is not aware of the existence of the injected noise. However, an advanced attacker who knows about the injected noise and incorporates images with injected noise in the training dataset can defeat all of the existing noise generation algorithms. To address this problem, we propose three novel noise generation algorithms, one of which can successfully defend against the advanced attacker.
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    Anubis Clock
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-03-31) Lakhani, Aamir
    Bad guys live forever, and they adapt and become legends. The threat landscape has completely changed. In the last twelve months we have seen supply chain attacks, an increase in ransomware (with an explosion of cryptocurrency value), and a dedication from attackers against industrial control and IoT systems. Attackers are using more sophisticated methods to engage in cybercrime, hacking, and disruption strategies. We will explore behind the curtain and show the techniques on how attackers use technology to attack systems, social engineer, and bypass security defense solutions. We are now studying, working, communicating, and interacting in ways that are different then they have been in the past and attackers are taking advantage of post-pandemic lifestyles. Attackers are targeting VPNs, remote desktop systems, growing more advanced with phishing attacks, targeting home-based IoT systems, remote conferencing applications, and gaming systems. Let me introduce you to the bad guy and how we are all on borrowed time against the attackers and the Anubis Clock.
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    The Evolving Landscape of Privacy, Technology and Data Governance
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-03-18) Brannon, Blake
    Why are all your favorite websites asking you to accept cookies? Why should you use and trust facial recognition software at the airport to help you get through security? How are businesses using your personal data to innovate new cures for complex health challenges? What does it all mean for humankind and the sharing of data? In recent years, the processing of personal data, transparency requirements, and automated decision making has become more heavily governed by an increasing number of global and local privacy laws and regulations. Specifically, the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) went into effect in 2018 and since then, California, Colorado, Virginia, India, China, Brazil, Japan, South Korea, and Canada are actively updating their data protection and usage policies across commercial and public sectors. At the core of it all is a growing set of societal expectations for data privacy and governance. The companies that meet consumer privacy expectations are also those building out bigger and bolder data strategies. Why? Because they recognize that proper and ethical use of data equates to customer and investor loyalty, which in turn creates a competitive advantage and an increase market capitalization. Simply put, doing what’s right for consumer’s privacy does not have to be at odds with using more data. It just means you need to show the value exchange for this data, and ensure consumers that their information is being protected. This is why privacy enhancing technologies and operational processes are fueling the future for how organizations will use and govern data usage. In this session, you will learn about the current landscape of emerging privacy, data governance and localization regulations . We will discuss how organizations are implementing privacy enhancing technologies to safely expand their use of data while respecting individual’s personal data rights.
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    Why Artificial Intelligence Increases the Importance of Humans in War (in Ukraine and Everywhere Else)
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-03-11) Lindsay, Jon
    Recent scholarship on artificial intelligence (AI) and international security focuses on the political and ethical consequences of replacing human warriors with machines. Yet AI is not a simple substitute for human decision-making. The advances in commercial machine learning that are reducing the costs of statistical prediction are simultaneously increasing the value of data (which enable prediction) and judgment (which determines why prediction matters). But these key complements—quality data and clear judgment—may not be present, or present to the same degree, in the uncertain and conflictual business of war. This has two important strategic implications. First, military organizations that adopt AI will tend to become more complex to accommodate the challenges of data and judgment across a variety of decision-making tasks. Second, data and judgment will tend to become attractive targets in strategic competition. As a result, conflicts involving AI complements are likely to unfold very differently than visions of AI substitution would suggest. Rather than rapid robotic wars and decisive shifts in military power, AI-enabled conflict will likely involve significant uncertainty, organizational friction, and chronic controversy. Greater military reliance on AI will therefore make the human element in war even more important, not less.
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    Cybersecurity Risk Management in Times of Geopolitical Crisis
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-03-04) Perullo, Jerry
    Organizations across the world are revisiting geography-based cybersecurity and travel restrictions in light of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. During this talk, we will explore the tools, settings, and policies available to companies to limit internet and physical access from or to specific countries and regions. We will discuss how companies and critical infrastructure apply those controls and considerations before and during a time of crisis. Finally, we will discuss valid and invalid reasons why an organization might consider implementing such restrictions. Specific topics covered will include the science behind IP address to location mapping and benefits or limitations to using that data in enforcement, possible false-positive implications of such restrictions, and common mistakes made when attempting to implement such controls. Common approaches to classifying countries and regions by risk and sanction status will also be discussed.
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    Internet Outages and State Repression
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-02-18) Gohdes, Anita R.
    State-imposed Internet shutdowns, which represent the most extreme form of online censorship, are globally gaining in popularity. Previous research has highlighted the human rights implications of shutdowns, but has thus far largely focused on studying individual countries, while relying on reported online disruptions. This paper takes a global comparative approach, arguing that all else equal, state actors will be more likely to abuse citizens’ physical integrity rights in countries with Internet outages that in countries where no outages occur. To account for all Internet outages, I construct two new indicators based on network measurement data that globally monitor the Internet for instances of outages in near real-time. I present a multivariate analysis of the relationship between Internet shutdowns and physical integrity violations across 168 countries between 2017 and 2020. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that Internet outages are significantly associated with an increase in repression, when compared to years and countries where uninterrupted Internet access is available. With more and more governments making use of cyber controls, the results have important ramifications for research and policy attempting to limit state abuse in the digital age.
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    Cyber Security and Cyber Physical Systems
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-02-11) Mertoguno, J. Sukarno
    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) underlies many of the nation's critical infrastructures. As CPS infrastructure becomes exposed to the contested world through networks, CPS security becomes much more important. In a CPS, the cyber components manage the physical components. The overall goal for CPS resiliency is to have the physical systems behave properly regardless of fault and disruption. Our approach to CPS resiliency focuses on the physical components. We observed that the inertia of the physical components provides a natural but limited resilience, and can tolerate short-term disruption without affecting the health and safety of the CPS. This and the fact that a CPS has a large difference between physical and cyber time scales, enables a unique approach to CPS resiliency. We present Byzantine Fault Tolerant++ (BFT++), a cyber resilient architecture that engineers the cyber components to be brittle against attack, which consequently forces cyber attacks and related disruptions to be short-lived and within a tolerance of the physical system’s inertia.
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    Evidence-Based Elections
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-02-04) Stark, Philip B.
    Elections rely on people, hardware, and software, all of which are fallible and subject to manipulation. Voting equipment is built by private vendors using foreign parts. Many states outsource election results reporting. Advanced persistent threats and insider threats are real. Uncertainty about the outcome of elections has been weaponized politically recently. We need to conduct elections in a way that provides affirmative evidence that the reported winners really won–despite malfunctions, errors, and malfeasance. Evidence-based elections require voter-verified (generally, hand-marked) paper ballots kept demonstrably secure throughout the canvass and manual audits of election results against the trustworthy paper trail. Compliance audits establish whether the paper trail is complete and trustworthy. Risk-limiting audits (RLAs) check the outcome by testing the hypothesis that one or more reported winners did not win. For a broad variety of social choice functions, including plurality, multi-winner plurality, supermajority, Borda count, approval voting, all scoring rules, instant-runoff voting (ranked-choice voting), and D'Hondt and Hamiltonian proportional representation, the hypothesis that at least one reported winner did not win can be reduced to the hypothesis that the mean of one or more lists of nonnegative numbers is not greater than 1/2. Martingale tests of these nonparametric hypotheses sequentially are especially practical. Methods to accommodate different sampling plans, equipment capability, logistical constraints, and laws and regulations have been developed and piloted in more than a dozen states in jurisdictions of all sizes, including roughly 10 audits of statewide contests. RLAs are in law in several states.
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    The Cyber Dimension of the Crisis in Ukraine: An Expert Panel Discussion
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-01-28) Brantly, Aaron F. ; Kostyuk, Nadiya ; Lindsay, Jon R. ; Maschmeyer, Lennart ; Pakharenko, Glib
    This panel brings together experts on the cyber dimension of the conflict in Ukraine to explore its geopolitical context and potential trajectories. The Russian military intervention in Ukraine has taken an ominous turn recently with the buildup of Russian military forces on the Ukrainian border. This represents an escalation in a long-running conflict that began in the wake of the Euromaidan demonstrations in Kyiv in late 2013, resulting in the Russian occupation of the Crimea and military stalemate in the Donbass region. Ukraine also became one of the most active cyber battlefields in the world. Russia has conducted continuous espionage, disinformation, and subversion campaigns. Its operations have caused electrical blackouts in 2014 and 2015 and triggered the NotPetya infection in 2017. Indeed, Ukraine has become the paradigmatic example of cyber conflict in the “gray zone” between peace and war. What are we to make of the current buildup? While no one can predict the future of a dangerous and dynamic crisis like this, our panelists can provide some political and strategic context. We focus in particular on the role of cyber warfare and information operations in the current phase of this crisis. Will the future resemble the past? Should we expect cyber operations to be used as complement to or substitute for military operations? Will cyber attacks make military escalation more or less likely? How might information and disinformation operations shape the Ukrainian or NATO responses to Russian acts? And how should the United States respond?