Artemis: A Reusable Excursion Vehicle Concept for Lunar Exploration

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Young, David Anthony
Olds, John R.
Hutchinson, Virgil L., Jr.
Krevor, Zachary C.
Young, James J.
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Artemis is a reusable excursion vehicle for lunar landing missions. It is intended to transport a notional CEV vehicle from low lunar orbit (LLO) to the lunar surface. It can be reused by refueling the vehicle in LLO. Artemis is nominally sized to carry a 10 MT payload to the lunar surface and then return it to LLO. Artemis is powered by four liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen fueled RL-10 engines. These RL-10 engines provide the necessary thrust and allow the Artemis lander to complete its nominal mission with two engines inoperative. The Artemis lander has volume margin built into its propellant tanks. This volume margin combined with an innovative cross-feed system allows Artemis to complete its ascent from the lunar surface with a propellant tank failure. This cross-feed system also allows Artemis to adjust the center of gravity (cg) of the vehicle by transferring propellant among the propellant tanks. Artemis lands on the moon with six articulating legs. This provides redundancy against a leg failure on landing and provides Artemis with the ability to land on uneven terrain. This vehicle is designed to be launched by a heavy-lift evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV). This design constraint results in the distinct shape of the lander. Artemis is launched as a compact cylinder in the EELV payload shroud, and then autonomously assembles itself via robotic arms similar to those currently used by the shuttle program. Details of the conceptual design process used for Artemis are included in this paper. The disciplines used in the design include configuration, propulsion design and selection, trajectory, mass properties, structural design, cost, operations, and reliability and safety. Each of these disciplines was computed using a conceptual design tool similar to that used in industry. These disciplines were then combined into an integrated design team process and used to minimize the gross weight of the Artemis. Once the design process was completed, a parametric Excel based model was created from the point design. This model can be used to resize Artemis for changing system metrics (such as payload) as well as changing technologies. The Artemis recurring and non-recurring costs were also computed. The total development cost including the design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) cost is $2.17 B FY'04. The theoretical first unit (TFU) cost is $303 M FY'04. Trade studies on life cycle costs (LCC) vs. fuel cost to LLO as well as flight rate are also discussed. A summary of design disciplines as well as the economic results are included.
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