Divan, Deepakraj M.

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    Multiport Control with Partial Power Processing in Solid-State Transformer for PV, Storage, and Fast-Charging Electric Vehicle Integration
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-09) Zheng, Liran ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Divan, Deepakraj M.
    This article proposes a multiport control method to enable partial power processing (PPP) in a medium-voltage (MV) multiport solid-state transformer (SST). MV multiport SSTs are promising in integrating low-voltage DC sources or loads such as solar photovoltaic, energy storage, and electric vehicles into smart grids without bulky line-frequency transformers. Compared to voltage-source SST, current-source (CS) SST features single-stage isolated bidirectional AC/AC, AC/DC, or DC/DC conversion using an inductive DC link. For a multiport CS SST, it is revealed in this article that the PPP capability can be enabled through the proposed control without extra hardware, different from the case of voltage-source converters where special hardware architecture is required for the PPP. With the PPP, most power exchange between LV ports is processed by only a fraction of the entire conversion stage, leading to reduced DC-link current, volume, loss, and improved efficiency. The proposed multiport PPP control scheme is analyzed to verify the advantages across a wide voltage and power range against conventional full power processing (FPP) multiport control, using the soft-switching solid-state transformer (S4T) with reduced conduction loss as an example. Comparative experimental results based on a SiC three-port S4T prototype verify the effectiveness of the proposed PPP scheme against the FPP scheme under both steady state and dynamic conditions. The DC-link current reduction is measured to be more than 36%. Significantly, the proposed multiport PPP control scheme is generic and applicable to any hard-switching or soft-switching CS SSTs without extra hardware.
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    Device Voltage Stress from Ground Leakage Current in Medium-Voltage Solid-State Transformer
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-09) Zheng, Liran ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Divan, Deepakraj M.
    Grounding related issues are critical for safe and reliable operation of solid-state transformer (SST) in medium-voltage (MV) applications, e.g., solar photovoltaic and energy storage integration, date center, electric vehicle fast charging, etc. This article presents for the first time the issue of additional device voltage stress due to grounding-loop current in current-source SST, using the soft-switching solid-state transformer (S4T) as an example. The S4T features single-stage isolated AC-AC, AC-DC, or DC-DC conversion with full-range ZVS, derived from flyback converter or current-source converter (CSC). However, the flyback operation for CSC-based SST means that magnetizing current flows through the reverse-blocking devices on only one side of the medium-frequency transformer (MFT) at a time. Then, the voltages across the devices, especially those on the other side of the MFT, can be influenced by parasitic current. A parasitic model of a modular S4T (M-S4T) prototype is developed from direct measurements and datasheets. Using the developed parasitic model and equivalent circuits, the causes of the voltage stress are analyzed. A voltage-stress mitigation scheme of connecting additional grounding capacitors is proposed. Damping resistors are also installed to damp out the grounding-loop resonance. A robust parameter design of the proposed scheme is given. The existence of the voltage stress issue and the effectiveness of the proposed scheme are verified experimentally on an MV SiC M-S4T prototype with inherent parameter variations among the five modules in the prototype. Both single-module and stacked-module operation are demonstrated during steady state and dynamic conditions up to 4 kV peak.
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    Predictive Direct DC-Link Control for 7.2 kV Three-Port Low-Inertia Solid-State Transformer with Active Power Decoupling
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-05) Zheng, Liran ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Divan, Deepakraj M.
    Promising for applications including renewable energy and electric vehicle fast charging, a medium-voltage (MV) solid-state transformer (SST) typically has multiple modules series stacked, which requires the modules to be single phase. One critical issue of the single-phase SST is the double-line-frequency power ripple. Traditionally, large passives are used to buffer the ripple, resulting in significantly increased volume and cost. This article for the first time proposes active power decoupling (APD) for the SST and a predictive direct DC-link control method, using a current-source single-stage SST as an example. An electrolytic capacitor-less buffer port is used to absorb the ripple, which tolerates up to a 30% voltage ripple for small capacitance. The APD SST control is challenging. First, the current-source SST realizes isolation, DC link, and multiport in a single stage. Second, different from conventional SSTs or APD converters, the low-inertia DC link in this SST has a 40% switching ripple, which is difficult to stabilize. To address the control challenge, a direct DC-link control architecture and a predictive control method are proposed. Simulation and experimental results verify the proposed control method on an MV SiC modular soft-switching solid-state transformer (M-S4T) prototype. The proposed APD reduces the SST volume by 53.8%. Importantly, the proposed concept is not limited to the M-S4T but is generic to other SSTs or APD converters.
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    DC-Link Current Minimization Control for Current Source Converter-Based Solid-State Transformer
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-05) Zheng, Liran ; Han, Xiangyu ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Divan, Deepakraj M.
    This article proposes a fast predictive control method and a small DC-link inductor to minimize the DC-link current in current-source converter (CSC)-based solid-state transformer. The DC-link current minimization can significantly reduce power loss and improve efficiency. The challenge of this problem is on improving both steady-state and dynamic performance. PI control methods and large DC-link inductors are conventionally used in the CSC but have limited dynamic performance. A model predictive control (MPC) method is proposed to achieve switching-cycle-level settling time, and the DC-link inductor is sized for 40% ripple to enable fast current change. Importantly, this article also proposes to minimize the DC-link current by varying the current even within a line cycle under single-phase load to improve the steady-state performance, in contrast with the reduction to a constant value in the literature. The proposed MPC features a constant switching frequency without weighting factors. The MPC does not have a high computational burden and is implemented in a regular digital controller for a prototype of soft-switching solid-state transformer (S4T) with reduced conduction loss. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been experimentally verified on the SiC S4T prototype during steady-state and dynamics under different multiport power flow conditions up to 2 kV peak. The DC-link current in the experiments is close to the minimum current with a short zero-vector duration, which further verifies the performance of the proposed method.
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    7.2 kV Three-Port SiC Single-Stage Current-Source Solid-State Transformer with 90 kV Lightning Protection
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-05) Zheng, Liran ; Han, Xiangyu ; Xu, Chunmeng ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Graber, Lukas ; Saeedifard, Maryam ; Divan, Deepakraj M.
    This article proposes a multiport modular single-stage current-source solid-state transformer (SST) for applications like photovoltaic, energy storage integration, electric vehicle fast charging, data center, etc. The 7.2 kV 50 kVA current-source SST consists of five input-series output-parallel modules, each based on 3.3 kV SiC reverse-blocking MOSFET-plus-diode modules. The proposed SST has some unique features. First, compared to the voltage-source or matrix converter-based SSTs, the current-source SST has a unique advantage of single-stage isolated AC/DC or AC/AC conversion with an inductive DC link, but no medium-voltage (MV) AC experiments have been reported. This article for the first time demonstrates MV AC current-source SST up to 7.5 kV peak. Second, the multiport SST has a buffer port for active power decoupling (APD) or energy storage integration. The double-line-frequency power ripple from single-phase AC grid normally results in a large capacitor size in MV SSTs. The APD scheme is proposed in MV applications for the first time to enable a reduced DC link and the electrolytic capacitor-less SST with high reliability. Third, as a direct grid-connected converter without line-frequency transformer, insulation and protection are critical. A medium-frequency transformer design passes 55 kV basic-insulation level (BIL) and 60 kV high potential dielectrics withstand test with only 0.09% leakage inductance. Importantly, a lightning protection scheme is presented to protect the SST itself from 90 kV BIL impulse. Fourth, the proposed current-source SST topology is a modular soft-switching solid-state transformer (M-S4T) with full-range zero-voltage switching and controlled dv/dt for low electromagnetic interference. These concepts are verified in a three-port M-S4T prototype with forced oil cooling under single-module, stacked-module, steady-state, and dynamic operations.
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    Solid-State Transformer and Hybrid Transformer with Integrated Energy Storage in Active Distribution Grids: Technical and Economic Comparison, Dispatch, and Control
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-01) Zheng, Liran ; Marellapudi, Aniruddh ; Chowdhury, Vikram Roy ; Bilakanti, Nishant ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Saeedifard, Maryam ; Grijalva, Santiago ; Divan, Deepakraj M.
    Solid-state transformer (SST) and hybrid transformer (HT) are promising alternatives to the line-frequency transformer (LFT) in smart grids. The SST features medium-frequency isolation, full controllability for voltage regulation, reactive power compensation, and the capability of battery energy storage system (BESS) integration with multiport configuration. The HT has a partially-rated converter for fractional controllability and can integrate a small BESS. Fast grid-edge voltage fluctuations from increased solar photovoltaic (PV) and electric vehicle (EV) penetration are difficult to manage for mechanical load tap changers. Hence, along with the trend towards more BESS in the grid, the controllability and the storage integration capability of the SST and HT are of strong interest. However, a review of literature shows existing SST and HT research is mostly at converter level, while system-level assessments are scarce. Assessing technical and economic impacts is critical to understanding the benefits and role of the SST and HT to guide future research, which is presented for the first time in this article. Experimental results from medium-voltage (MV) SST and MV HT prototypes are shown to confirm equipment-level feasibility, where the voltage controllability waveforms of a MV HT prototype are reported for the first time. Comparative simulations are performed on a modified IEEE 34-bus system. A grid-model-less decentralized grid-edge voltage control method and a day-ahead BESS dispatch method are proposed for the SST and HT. The simulations show that the SST and HT with integrated storage can host more PV, achieve peak shaving, mitigate voltage fluctuation and reverse power flow, and support energy arbitrage for operational cost reduction, as compared to the LFT. Moreover, comprehensive analyses of net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) are performed under different installed PV capacities, HT’s partial converter ratings, and BESS capacities. Sensitivities to future cost reductions of the PV and BESS are studied. Although the NPV and IRR are currently negative, 60% capital cost reduction or 150% revenue increase will make the SST and HT economically viable in the use case studied.
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    Insulation Coordination Design for Grid-Connected Solid-State Transformers
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2021-11) Xu, Chunmeng ; Wei, Jia ; Zheng, Liran ; Han, Xiangyu ; Saeedifard, Maryam ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Kandasamy, Karthik ; Divan, Deepakraj M. ; Graber, Lukas
    The deployment of solid-state transformers (SSTs) in medium-voltage distribution systems is facing various challenges, especially the challenge of insulation coordination design against grid-originated lightning impulses. In this paper, two challenges in existing insulation coordination designs for grid-connected SSTs are identified. One challenge is the mismatch between metal-oxide varistor (MOV) protective levels and SST insulation strength, the other challenge is the incompatibility of standard impulse test on SST protective structures. To address the MOV selection challenge, a novel lightning protection scheme is designed to protect a single-stage SST where the semiconductor modules are directly exposed to external lightning impulses. The in-lab lightning impulse tests are performed to verify the overvoltage attenuation performance of the prototyped lightning protection scheme. To address the impulse test challenge, the surge withstand capability of the protected SST is comprehensively evaluated with a complete set of insulation coordination design procedures beyond the BIL test. After these two challenges are addressed, a discussion is presented on substituting conventional transformers with the protected SSTs into insulation-coordinated distribution systems to facilitate the field deployment of SSTs.
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    Current-Source Solid-State DC Transformer Integrating LVDC Microgrid, Energy Storage and Renewable Energy into MVDC Grid
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2021-08) Zheng, Liran ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Divan, Deepakraj M.
    Solid-state DC transformer to integrate low-voltage DC (LVDC) microgrid, wind turbine (WT) generator, photovoltaic (PV), and energy storage (ES) into medium-voltage (MV) direct-current (MVDC) distribution grids is attractive. This paper proposes current-source DC solid-state transformer (SST) for MVDC collection system in WT, PV, and ES farms or as an interface between the MVDC grid and the LVDC microgrid. Compared to conventional current-source converter (CSC) based SSTs, a switch reduction scheme on reverse-blocking device bridges is proposed to reduce device count and the number of devices on the DC-link current path. Importantly, the proposed switch reduction scheme is generic and can be applied to the DC ports of DC-AC, AC-DC, or DC-DC hard-switching or soft-switching CSC-based SSTs. Based on this scheme, the proposed current-source DC SSTs are derived, which have reduced electrolytic-capacitor-less DC-link. The proposed DC SSTs also achieve single-stage isolated DC-DC or DC-AC conversion, full-range zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for main switches, zero-current switching (ZCS) for resonant switches, and controlled dv/dt. The proposed DC SSTs, operating principles, predictive control method, the ZVS, and the controlled dv/dt under voltage buck-boost ranges are verified with MV simulations and an experimental prototype based on SiC MOSFETs, diodes, and a nanocrystalline transformer.
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    New Modulation and Impact of Transformer Leakage Inductance on Current-Source Solid-State Transformer
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2021-08) Zheng, Liran ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Kandasamy, Karthik ; Divan, Deepakraj M.
    This article presents a novel modulation scheme for device voltage stress mitigation and comprehensive analysis of the impact of transformer leakage inductance in a current-source solid-state transformer (SST). Different from dual active bridge (DAB) SST, the operation of the current-source SST is similar to that of a flyback converter. The device bridge on only one side of the transformer is active to store energy into or release energy from the magnetizing inductance which acts as a current-source dc link. Such flyback operation with reverse-blocking switches can lead to additional device voltage stress and incomplete zero-voltage switching (ZVS) on the current-source soft-switching solid-state transformer (S4T) under conventional modulation. A new modulation scheme is proposed to address this issue. Moreover, different from the DAB, the leakage inductance of the medium-frequency transformer (MFT) in the S4T is a parasitic element similar to that in a matrix SST and can cause additional device voltage stress. Though the resonant capacitors, originally added to achieve ZVS, can absorb and recycle the leakage energy in the S4T, these capacitors need to be increased with larger leakage inductances to limit the voltage stress. However, large resonant capacitors can result in more lost duty cycles and reduced efficiency. The impact of such leakage inductance on device voltage stress is analyzed comprehensively, which is critical to guide future research and design of the S4T. Experimental results from S4T prototypes for DC-DC, multiport AC-DC, and AC-AC conversion with 1:1 and 4:1 MFT comprehensively verify the proposed concepts. Finally, a case study of a three-phase AC-AC S4T over a power range from 1 kVA to 100 kVA each module reveals that the MFT leakage inductance should be less than 1% of the magnetizing inductance for safe operation.
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    Robust Predictive Control for Modular Solid-State Transformer with Reduced DC Link and Parameter Mismatch
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2021-06) Zheng, Liran ; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad ; Divan, Deepakraj M.
    This paper presents the analysis and implementation of a predictive control method for dc-link regulation and voltage balance in a cascaded modular reduced dc-link solid-state transformer (SST). Passive components like bulky dc links limit the power density of power converters, especially medium-voltage (MV) SST. Reduced dc-link or low-inertia converters can dramatically reduce the size, cost, and weight by tolerating larger dc-link ripples and improve the reliability with electrolytic capacitor-less dc link. However, a small dc link leads to tight coupling between the input and the output stages, which is a challenge for control design. In stacked low-inertia converters (SLIC), the low-inertia converter modules are stacked for MV applications, resulting in coupling between the modules and making the control more challenging. A new model predictive control method which can achieve deadbeat regulation on the dc link without weighting factors has been proposed to address this novel problem. This paper focuses on analyzing the condition of the low-inertia dc link up to 80% ripple, the robustness of the control under parameter mismatches, high-order terms, and important implementation issues such as model-based sampling and computation delay compensation. Significantly, the high-order terms are introduced because of the large dc-link ripple. These high-order terms are unique to the SLIC and negligible in conventional high-inertia converters. A discrete-time large-signal model is built to capture the dc-link’s nonlinear dynamics, and the eigenvalues of a small-signal Jacobian matrix are analyzed with Floquet theory to evaluate stability, using the modular soft-switching solid-state transformer (M-S4T) as an example of the SLIC. Simulation and experimental results of an MVDC M-S4T verify the analysis and the predictive control method. Finally, the general application of the predictive control to low-inertia converters is compared against a conventional PI controller using a reduced dc-link active-front-end (AFE) rectifier as an example.