Goldman, Daniel I.

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 37
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    Simulation of compound anchor intrusion in dry sand by a hybrid FEM+SPH method
    ( 2022-09) He, Haozhou ; Karsai, Andras ; Liu, Bangyuan ; Hammond III, Frank L. ; Goldman, Daniel I. ; Arson, Chloé
    The intrusion of deformable compound anchors in dry sand is simulated by coupling the Finite Element Method (FEM) with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). This novel approach can calculate granular flows at lower computational cost than SPH alone. The SPH and FEM domains interact through reaction forces calculated from balance equations and are assigned the same soil constitutive model (Drucker-Prager) and the same constitutive parameters (measured or calibrated). Experimental force-displacement curves are reproduced for penetration depths of 8 mm or more (respectively, 20 mm or more) for spike-shaped (respectively, fan-shaped) anchors with 1 to 6 blades. As the number of blades increases, simulations reveal that the granular flow under the anchor deviates from the vertical and that the horizontal granular flow transitions from orthoradial to radial. We interpret the strain field distribution as the result of soil arching, i.e., the transfer of stress from a yielding mass of soil onto adjoining stationary soil masses. Arching is fully active when the radial distance between blade end points is less than a critical length. In that case, the normal stress that acts on the compound anchor at a given depth reaches the normal stress that acts on a disk-shaped anchor of same radius. A single-blade anchor produces soil deformation and failure similar to Prandtl’s foundation sliding model. Multiblade anchors produce a complex failure mechanism that combines sliding and arching.
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    Colloquium: Biophysical principles of undulatory self-propulsion in granular media
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2014) Goldman, Daniel I.
    Biological locomotion, movement within environments through self-deformation, encompasses a range of time and length scales in an organism. These include the electrophysiology of the nervous system, the dynamics of muscle activation, the mechanics of the skeletal system, and the interaction mechanics of such structures within natural environments like water, air, sand, and mud. Unlike the many studies of cellular and molecular scale biophysical processes, movement of entire organisms (like flies, lizards, and snakes) is less explored. Further, while movement in fluids like air and water is also well studied, little is known in detail of the mechanics that organisms use to move on and within flowable terrestrial materials such as granular media, ensembles of small particles that collectively display solid, fluid, and gaslike behaviors. This Colloquium reviews recent progress to understand principles of biomechanics and granular physics responsible for locomotion of the sandfish, a small desert-dwelling lizard that “ swims” within sand using undulation of its body. Kinematic and muscle activity measurements of sand swimming using high speed x-ray imaging and electromyography are discussed. This locomotion problem poses an interesting challenge: namely, that equations that govern the interaction of the lizard with its environment do not yet exist. Therefore, complementary modeling approaches are also described: resistive force theory for granular media, multiparticle simulation modeling, and robotic physical modeling. The models reproduce biomechanical and neuromechanical aspects of sand swimming and give insight into how effective locomotion arises from the coupling of the body movement and flow of the granular medium. The argument is given that biophysical study of movement provides exciting opportunities to investigate emergent aspects of living systems that might not depend sensitively on biological details.
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    The Effectiveness of Resistive Force Theory in Granular Locomotion
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2014) Zhang, Tingnan ; Goldman, Daniel I.
    Resistive force theory (RFT) is often used to analyze the movement of microscopic organisms swimming in fluids. In RFT, a body is partitioned into infinitesimal segments, each of which generates thrust and experiences drag. Linear superposition of forces from elements over the body allows prediction of swimming velocities and efficiencies. We show that RFT quantitatively describes the movement of animals and robots that move on and within dry granular media (GM), collections of particles that display solid, fluid, and gas-like features. RFT works well when the GM is slightly polydisperse, and in the “frictional fluid” regime such that frictional forces dominate material inertial forces, and when locomotion can be approximated as confined to a plane. Within a given plane (horizontal or vertical) relationships that govern the force versus orientation of an elemental intruder are functionally independent of the granular medium. We use the RFT to explain features of locomotion on and within granular media including kinematic and muscle activation patterns during sand-swimming by a sandfish lizard and a shovel-nosed snake, optimal movement patterns of a Purcell 3-link sand-swimming robot revealed by a geometric mechanics approach, and legged locomotion of small robots on the surface of GM. We close by discussing situations to which granular RFT has not yet been applied (such as inclined granular surfaces), and the advances in the physics of granular media needed to apply RFT in such situations.
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    Effect of Volume Fraction on Granular Aavalanche Dynamics
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2014) Gravish, Nick ; Goldman, Daniel I.
    We study the evolution and failure of a granular slope as a function of prepared volume fraction, φ0. We rotated an initially horizontal layer of granular material (0.3-mm-diam glass spheres) to a 45◦ angle while we monitor the motion of grains from the side and top with high-speed video cameras. The dynamics of grain motion during the tilt process depended sensitively on φ0∈ [0.58–0.63] and differed above or below the granular critical state, φc, defined as the onset of dilation as a function of increasing volume fraction. For φ0−φc < 0, slopes experienced short, rapid, precursor compaction events prior to the onset of a sustained avalanche. Precursor compaction events began at an initial angle θ0 = 7.7 ± 1.4◦ and occurred intermittently prior to the onset of an avalanche. Avalanches occurred at the maximal slope angle θm =28.5 ± 1.0◦. Granular material at φ0 − φc > 0 did not experience precursor compaction prior to avalanche flow, and instead experienced a single dilational motion at θ0 = 32.1 ± 1.5◦ prior to the onset of an avalanche at θm = 35.9 ± 0.7◦. Both θ0 and θm increased with φ0 and approached the same value in the limit of random close packing. The angle at which avalanching grains came to rest, θR = 22 ± 2◦, was independent of φ0. From side-view high-speed video, we measured the velocity field of intermittent and avalanching flow. We found that flow direction, depth, and duration were affected by φ0, with φ0 − φc < 0 precursor flow extending deeper into the granular bed and occurring more rapidly than precursor flow at φ0 − φc > 0. Our study elucidates how initial conditions—including volume fraction—are important determinants of granular slope stability and the onset of avalanches.
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    Force and flow at the onset of drag in plowed granular media
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2014) Gravish, Nick ; Umbanhowar, Paul B. ; Goldman, Daniel I.
    We study the transient drag force F[subscript D] on a localized intruder in a granular medium composed of spherical glass particles. A flat plate is translated horizontally from rest through the granular medium to observe how F[subscript D] varies as a function of the medium’s initial volume fraction, φ. The force response of the granular material differs above and below the granular critical state, φ[subscript c], the volume fraction which corresponds to the onset of grain dilatancy. For φ<φ[subscript c] F[subscript D] increases monotonically with displacement and is independent of drag velocity for the range of velocities examined (<10 cm/s). For φ>φ[subscript c], F[subscript D] rapidly rises to a maximum and then decreases over further displacement. The maximum force for φ>φ[subscript c] increases with increasing drag velocity. In quasi-two-dimensional drag experiments, we use granular particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure time resolved strain fields associated with the horizontal motion of a plate started from rest. PIV experiments show that the maxima in F[subscript D] for φ>φ[subscript c] are associated with maxima in the spatially averaged shear strain field. For φ>φ[subscript c] the shear strain occurs in a narrow region in front of the plate, a shear band. For φ<φ[subscript c] the shear strain is not localized, the shear band fluctuates in space and time, and the average shear increases monotonically with displacement. Laser speckle measurements made at the granular surface ahead of the plate reveal that for φ<φ[subscript c] particles are in motion far from the intruder and shearing region. For φ>φ[subscript c], surface particles move only during the formation of the shear band, coincident with the maxima in F[subscript D], after which the particles remain immobile until the sheared region reaches the measurement region.
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    A terradynamics of legged locomotion on granular media
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2013-03-22) Li, Chen ; Zhang, Tingnan ; Goldman, Daniel I.
    The theories of aero- and hydrodynamics predict animal movement and device design in air and water through the computation of lift, drag, and thrust forces. Although models of terrestrial legged locomotion have focused on interactions with solid ground, many animals move on substrates that flow in response to intrusion. However, locomotor-ground interaction models on such flowable ground are often unavailable. We developed a force model for arbitrarily-shaped legs and bodies moving freely in granular media, and used this “terradynamics" to predict a small legged robot's locomotion on granular media using various leg shapes and stride frequencies. Our study reveals a complex but generic dependence of stresses in granular media on intruder depth, orientation, and movement direction and gives insight into the effects of leg morphology and kinematics on movement
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    Mechanics of undulatory swimming in a frictional fluid
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2012-12) Ding, Yang ; Sharpe, Sarah S. ; Masse, Andrew ; Goldman, Daniel I.
    The sandfish lizard (Scincus scincus) swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. In previous work we predicted average swimming speed by developing a numerical simulation that incorporated experimentally measured biological kinematics into a multibody sandfish model. The model was coupled to an experimentally validated soft sphere discrete element method simulation of the granular medium. In this paper, we use the simulation to study the detailed mechanics of undulatory swimming in a ‘‘granular frictional fluid’’ and compare the predictions to our previously developed resistive force theory (RFT) which models sand-swimming using empirically determined granular drag laws. The simulation reveals that the forward speed of the center of mass (CoM) oscillates about its average speed in antiphase with head drag. The coupling between overall body motion and body deformation results in a non-trivial pattern in the magnitude of lateral displacement of the segments along the body. The actuator torque and segment power are maximal near the center of the body and decrease to zero toward the head and the tail. Approximately 30% of the net swimming power is dissipated in head drag. The power consumption is proportional to the frequency in the biologically relevant range, which confirms that frictional forces dominate during sand-swimming by the sandfish. Comparison of the segmental forces measured in simulation with the force on a laterally oscillating rod reveals that a granular hysteresis effect causes the overestimation of the body thrust forces in the RFT. Our models provide detailed testable predictions for biological locomotion in a granular environment.
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    Lift-off dynamics in a simple jumping robot
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2012-10-26) Aguilar, Jeffrey ; Lesov, Alex ; Wiesenfeld, Kurt ; Goldman, Daniel I.
    We study vertical jumping in a simple robot comprising an actuated mass-spring arrangement. The actuator frequency and phase are systematically varied to find optimal performance. Optimal jumps occur above and below (but not at) the robot’s resonant frequency f0. Two distinct jumping modes emerge: a simple jump, which is optimal above f0, is achievable with a squat maneuver, and a peculiar stutter jump, which is optimal below f0, is generated with a countermovement. A simple dynamical model reveals how optimal lift-off results from nonresonant transient dynamics.
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    Entangled granular media
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2012-05-17) Gravish, Nick ; Franklin, Scott V. ; Hu, David L. ; Goldman, Daniel I.
    We study the geometrically induced cohesion of ensembles of granular“u particles” that mechanically entangle through particle interpenetration. We vary the length-to-width ratio l/w of the u particles and form them into freestanding vertical columns. In a laboratory experiment, we monitor the response of the columns to sinusoidal vibration (with peak acceleration Γ). Column collapse occurs in a characteristic time τ which follows the relationτ∝exp(Γ/Δ). Δ resembles an activation energy and is maximal at intermediate l/w. A simulation reveals that optimal strength results from competition between packing and entanglement
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    Multi-functional foot use during running in the zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides)
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2012-05) Li, Chen ; Hsieh, S. Tonia ; Goldman, Daniel I.
    A diversity of animals that run on solid, level, flat, non-slip surfaces appear to bounce on their legs; elastic elements in the limbs can store and return energy during each step. The mechanics and energetics of running in natural terrain, particularly on surfaces that can yield and flow under stress, is less understood. The zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides), a small desert generalist with a large, elongate, tendinous hind foot, runs rapidly across a variety of natural substrates. We use high-speed video to obtain detailed three-dimensional running kinematics on solid and granular surfaces to reveal how leg, foot and substrate mechanics contribute to its high locomotor performance. Running at ~10bodylengthss–1 (~1ms–1), the center of mass oscillates like a spring-mass system on both substrates, with only 15% reduction in stride length on the granular surface. On the solid surface, a strut-spring model of the hind limb reveals that the hind foot saves ~40% of the mechanical work needed per step, significant for the lizardʼs small size. On the granular surface, a penetration force model and hypothesized subsurface foot rotation indicates that the hind foot paddles through fluidized granular medium, and that the energy lost per step during irreversible deformation of the substrate does not differ from the reduction in the mechanical energy of the center of mass. The upper hind leg muscles must perform three times as much mechanical work on the granular surface as on the solid surface to compensate for the greater energy lost within the foot and to the substrate.