Wartell, Roger M.

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 38
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    American scientists survey-phase II
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2011-03-15) Walsh, John P. ; Huang, Hsin-I ; No, Yeonji ; Wartell, Roger M. ; Bayer, Charlene W. ; Tornabene, Thomas G.
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    Comparative studies of influence of interstrand cross-linkas and strongly ...
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-06-09) Wartell, Roger M.
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    Conversion of Stable RNA Hairpin to a Metastable Dimer in Frozen Solution
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2007-12) Sun, Xueguang ; Li, J. Michael ; Wartell, Roger M.
    Previous studies employing a 79-nucleotide (nt) RNA indicated that this RNA could form two bands in a native polyacrylamide gel while one band was observed in a denaturing gel. This report describes an investigation on the nature of the two corresponding structures and the segment responsible for forming the slower mobility band. Sedimentation equilibrium of the 79-nt RNA was consistent with the two gel bands corresponding to monomer and dimer forms. The portion of the RNA required for dimer formation was explored using a secondary structure prediction algorithm of two 79-nt RNAs linked in a head-to-tail fashion. The predicted structure suggested that the first 21-nt at the 59 end of each RNA formed a self complementary duplex. A ribonuclease H assay carried out with RNA prepared as monomer (M), or a mixture of monomer and dimer (M/D), gave results consistent with the predicted M and D structures. Gel mobility experiments on 59 and 39 segments of the 79-nt RNA also indicated that dimer formation was due to the 21-nt 59 end. Studies on the 21-nt RNA molecule and sequence variants showed that this sequence can form a hairpin and a dimer complex. Unexpectedly, the hairpin to dimer conversion was shown to occur at high efficiency in frozen solution, although little or no conversion was observed above 0°C. The results indicate that a freezing environment can promote formation of intermolecular RNA complexes from stable RNA hairpins, supporting the notion that this environment could have played a role in the evolution of RNA complexity.
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    Predicted structure and phyletic distribution of the RNA-binding protein Hfq
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2002) Sun, Xueguang ; Zhulin, Igor ; Wartell, Roger M.
    Hfq, a bacterial RNA-binding protein, was recently shown to contain the Sm1 motif, a characteristic of Sm and LSm proteins that function in RNA processing events in archaea and eukaryotes. In this report, comparative structural modeling was used to predict a three-dimensional structure of the Hfq core sequence. The predicted structure aligns with most major features of the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum LSm protein structure. Conserved residues in Hfq are positioned at the same structural locations responsible for subunit assembly and RNA interaction in Sm proteins. A highly conserved portion of Hfq assumes a structural fold similar to the Sm2 motif of Sm proteins. The evolution of the Hfq protein was explored by conducting a BLAST search of microbial genomes followed by phylogenetic analysis. Approximately half of the 140 complete or nearly complete genomes examined contain at least one gene coding for Hfq. The presence or absence of Hfq closely followed major bacterial clades. It is absent from high-level clades and present in the ancient Thermotogales-Aquificales clade and all proteobacteria except for those that have undergone major reduction in genome size. Residues at three positions in Hfq form signatures for the beta/gamma proteobacteria, alpha proteobacteria and low GC Gram-positive bacteria groups.
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    The formation of adjacent triplex-duplex domains in DNA
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-02) Nam, Kang Hoon ; Abhiraman, Saraswathy ; Wartell, Roger M.
    The ability of single-stranded DNA oligomers to form adjacent triplex and duplex domains with two DNA structural motifs was examined. Helix–coil transition curves and a gel mobility shift assay were used to characterize the interaction of single-stranded oligomers 12–20 nt in length with a DNA hairpin and with a DNA duplex that has a dangling end. The 12 nt on the 5'-ends of the oligomers could form a triplex structure with the 12 bp stem of the hairpin or the duplex portion of the DNA with a dangling end. The 3'-ends of the 17–20 nt strands could form Watson–Crick pairs to the five base loop of the hairpin or the dangling end of the duplex. Complexes of the hairpin DNA with the singlestranded oligomers showed two step transitions consistent with unwinding of the triplex strand followed by hairpin denaturation. Melting curve and gel competition results indicated that the complex of the hairpin and the 12 nt oligomer was more stable than the complexes involving the extended single strands. In contrast, results indicated that the extended single-stranded oligomers formed Watson–Crick base pairs with the dangling end of the duplex DNA and enhanced the stability of the adjacent triplex region.
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    The role of TAR in HIV transcription initiation
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1996-08) Wartell, Roger M.
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    The thermal stability of DNA fragments with tandem mismatches at a d(CXYG)d(CY'X'G) site
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1996-02-15) Ke, Song-Hua ; Wartell, Roger M.
    Temperature-Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TGGE) was employed to determine the thermal stabilities of 28 DNA fragments, 373 bp long, with two adjacent mismatched base pairs, and eight DNAs with Watson-Crick base pairs at the same positions. Heteroduplex DNAs containing two adjacent mismatches were formed by melting and reannealing pairs of homologous 373 bp DNA fragments differing by two adjacent base pairs. Product DNAs were separated based on their thermal stability by parallel and perpendicular TGGE. The polyacrylamide gel contained 3.36 M urea and 19.2 % formamide to lower the DNA melting temperatures. The order of stability was determined in the sequence context d(CXYG).d(CY'X'G) where X.X' and Y.Y" represent the mismatched or Watson-Crick base pairs. The identity of the mismatched bases and their stacking interactions influence DNA stability. Mobility transition melting temperatures (T u) of the DNAs with adjacent mismatches were 1.0-3.6 degrees C (+/-0.2 degree C) lower than the homoduplex DNA with the d(CCAG).d(CTGG) sequence. Two adjacent G.A pairs, d(CGAG).d(CGAG), created a more stable DNA than DNAs with Watson-Crick A.T pairs at the same sites. The d(GA).d(GA) sequence is estimated to be 0.4 (+/-30%) kcal/mol more stable in free energy than d(AA).d(TT) base pairs. This result confirms the unusual stability of the d(GA).d(GA) sequence previously observed in DNA oligomers. All other DNAs with adjacent mismatched base pairs were less stable than Watson-Crick homoduplex DNAs. Their relative stabilities followed an order expected from previous results on single mismatches. Two homoduplex DNAs with identical nearest neighbor sequences but different next-nearest neighbor sequences had a small but reproducible difference in T u value. This result indicates that sequence dependent next neighbor stacking interactions influence DNA stability.
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    A program for selecting DNA fragments to detect mutations by denaturing gel electrophoresis methods
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1994-10-11) Brossette, Stephen ; Wartell, Roger M.
    A computer program was developed to automate the selection of DNA fragments for detecting mutations within a long DNA sequence by denaturing gel electrophoresis methods. The program, MELTSCAN, scans through a user specified DNA sequence calculating the melting behavior of overlapping DNA fragments covering the sequence. Melting characteristics of the fragments are analyzed to determine the best fragment for detecting mutations at each base pair position in the sequence. The calculation also determines the optimal fragment for detecting mutations within a user specified mutational hot spot region. The program is built around the statistical mechanical model of the DNA melting transition. The optimal fragment for a given position is selected using the criteria that its melting curve has at least two steps, the base pair position is in the fragment's lowest melting domain, and the melting domain has the smallest number of base pairs among fragments that meet the first two criteria. The program predicted fragments for detecting mutations in the cDNA and genomic DNA of the human p53 gene.
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    Localization of the intrinsically bent DNA region upstream of the E.cofi rrnB P1 promoter
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1994-06-25) Gaal, Tamas ; Rao, Lin ; Estrem, Shawn T. ; Yang, Jin ; Wartell, Roger M. ; Gourse, Richard L.
    DNA sequences upstream of the rrnB P1 core promoter (-10, -35 region) increase transcription more than 300-fold in vivo and in vitro. This stimulation results from a cis-acting DNA sequence, the UP element, which interacts directly with the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase, increasing transcription about 30-fold, and from a positively acting transcription factor, FIS, which increases expression another 10-fold. A DNA region exhibiting a high degree of intrinsic curvature has been observed upstream of the rrnB P1 core promoter and has thus been often cited as an example of the effect of bending on transcription. However, the precise position of the curvature has not been determined. We address here whether this bend is in fact related to activation of rRNA transcription. Electrophoretic analyses were used to localize the major bend in the rrnB P1 upstream region to position approximately -100 with respect to the transcription initiation site. Since most of the effect of upstream sequences on transcription results from DNA between the -35 hexamer and position -88, i.e. downstream of the bend center, these studies indicate that the curvature leading to the unusual electrophoretic behavior of the upstream region does not play a major role in activation of rRNA transcription. Minor deviations from normal electrophoretic behavior were associated with the region just upstream of the -35 hexamer and could conceivably influence interactions between the UP element and the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase.
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    Repression of TAT activated HIV-LTR directed gene expression
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1994-06) Wartell, Roger M.