Person:
Kippelen, Bernard

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 16
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Highly efficient inverted top-emitting green phosphorescent organic light-lightemitting diodes on glass and flexible substrates

2012-07 , Najafabadi, E. , Knauer, K. A. , Haske, Wojciech , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Kippelen, Bernard

Green phosphorescent inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high current efficacy and luminance are demonstrated on glass and polyethersulfone (PES) substrates coated with polyethylene dioxythiophene-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The bottom cathode is an aluminum/lithium fluoride bilayer that injects electrons efficiently into an electron transport layer of 1,3,5-tri(m-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene (TpPyPB). The cathode is found to be highly sensitive to the exposure of trace amounts of O₂ and H₂O. A high current efficacy of 96.3 cd/A is achieved at a luminance of 1387 cd/m² when an optical outcoupling layer of N,N′-Di-[(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl]-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (α-NPD) is deposited on the anode.

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Metal-oxide complementary inverters with a vertical geometry fabricated on flexible substrates

2011-10 , Dindar, Amir , Kim, Jungbae , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Kippelen, Bernard

We report on the fabrication of p-channel thin film transistors (TFTs) and vertically stacked complementary inverters comprised of a p-channel copper oxide TFT on top of an n-channel indium gallium zinc oxide TFT fabricated on a flexible polyethersulfone substrate. The p- and n-channel TFTs showed saturation mobility values of 0.0022 and 1.58 cm²/Vs, respectively, yielding inverters with a gain of 120 V/V. This level of performance was achieved by reducing the copper oxide channel thickness, allowing oxygen diffusion into the copper oxide layer at medium processing temperature (150 °C).

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Indium tin oxide-free and metal-free semitransparent organic solar cells

2010-10 , Zhou, Yinhua , Cheun, Hyeunseok , Choi, Seungkeun , Potscavage, William J., Jr. , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Kippelen, Bernard

We report on indium tin oxide (ITO)-free and metal-free semitransparent organic solar cells with a high-conductivity poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) (PH1000) as both the bottom and the top electrodes. The PH1000 film showed a conductivity of 680±50 S/cm. A ZnO layer was used as an interlayer to produce an electron-selective electrode. The semitransparent devices with a structure of glass/PH1000/ZnO/poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C ₆₁-butyric acid methyl ester/PEDOT:PSS (CPP 105 D)/PH1000 exhibited an average power conversion efficiency of 1.8% estimated for 100 mW/cm² air mass 1.5 global illumination. This geometry alleviates the need of vacuum deposition of a top electrode.

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Low-voltage InGaZnO thin-film transistors with Al₂O₃ gate grown by atomic layer deposition

2009-06 , Kim, Jungbae , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Potscavage, William J., Jr. , Zhang, Xiaohong , Kippelen, Bernard

We report on low-voltage, high-performance amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide n-channel thin-film transistors fabricated using 100-nm-thick Al₂O₃ grown by atomic layer deposition as the gate dielectric layer. The Al₂O₃ gate dielectric shows very small current densities and has a capacitance density of 81±1 nFcm². Due to a very small contact resistance, transistors with channel lengths ranging from 100 μm down to 5 μm yield a channel-independent, field-effect mobility of 8±1 cm² V s, subthreshold slopes of 0.1±0.01 Vdecade, low threshold voltages of 0.4±0.1 V, and high on-off current ratios up to 6 x10⁷ (WL=4005 μm) at 5 V.

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Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag/Au bilayer thin films

2012-04 , Hsu, James , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Ernst, Alfred R. , Hales, Joel M. , Perry, Joseph W. , Kippelen, Bernard

The linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag/Au bilayer metallic thin films with a total thickness of around 20 nm and with different Ag/Au mass-thickness ratios were studied. This study shows that the spectral dispersion of the effective refractive index of bilayer films can be tuned by controlling the mass-thickness ratio between Au and Ag. Improvement of the figure-of-merit for potential plasmonic applications and linear optical filters in the visible spectral range are reported and discussed. The nonlinear optical properties of bilayer metal films studied using femtosecond white-light continuum pump-probe experiments are also shown to be tunable with this ratio. The nonlinear change of optical path length is extracted from the pump-probe data and agrees with simulated values derived from a combination of the two-temperature model, describing the ultrafast electron heating dynamics, and a physical model that describes the dielectric permittivity of Au as a function of electron and lattice temperature

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ITO-free large-area organic light-emitting diodes with an integrated metal grid

2011-07 , Choi, Seungkeun , Kim, Sung-Jin , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Kippelen, Bernard

We report on ITO-free large-area organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated on glass substrates comprising α-NPD as a hole transport layer (HTL) and coevaporated CBP:Ir(ppy)3 as the emission layer. Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) was replaced with a conductive polymer electrode and an electroplated thick metal grid was used to improve the homogeneity of the potential distribution over the transparent polymer electrode. An electrical model of a metal grid integrated OLED shows the benefits of the use of metal grids in terms of improving the uniformity of the light emitted as the area of the OLED increases as well as the conductivity of the transparent electrode decreases. By integrating metal grids with polymer electrodes, the luminance increases more than 24% at 6 V and 45% at 7 V compared to the polymer electrode devices without a metal grid. This implies that a lower voltage can be applied to achieve the same luminance, hence lowering the power consumption. Furthermore, metal grid integrated OLEDs exhibited less variation in light emission compared to devices without a metal grid.

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Nonlinear optical properties of induced transmission filters

2010-08 , Owens, Daniel T. , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Hales, Joel M. , Perry, Joseph W. , Kippelen, Bernard

The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of induced transmission filters (ITFs) based on Ag are experimentally determined using white light continuum pump-probe measurements. The experimental results are supported using simulations based on the matrix transfer method. The magnitude of the NLO response is shown to be 30 times that of an isolated Ag film of comparable thickness. The impacts of design variations on the linear and NLO response are simulated. It is shown that the design can be modified to enhance the NLO response of an ITF by a factor of 2 or more over a perfectly matched ITF structure.

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Top-gate hybrid complementary inverters using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors with high operational stability

2012-03 , Kim, Jungbae , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Hwang, D. K. , Potscavage, William J., Jr. , Kippelen, Bernard

We report on the operational stability of low-voltage hybrid organic-inorganic complementary inverters with a top-gate bottom source-drain geometry. The inverters are comprised of p-channel pentacene and n-channel amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with bi-layer gate dielectrics formed from an amorphous layer of a fluoropolymer (CYTOP) and a high-k layer of Al₂O₃. The p- and n- channel TFTs show saturationmobility values of 0.1±0.01 and 5.0±0.5 cm²/Vs, respectively. The individual transistors show high electrical stability with less than 6% drain-to-source current variations after 1 h direct current (DC) bias stress. Complementary inverters yield hysteresis-free voltage transfer characteristics for forward and reverse input biases with static DC gain values larger than 45 V/V at 8 V before and after being subjected to different conditions of electrical stress. Small and reversible variations of the switching threshold voltage of the inverters during these stress tests are compatible with the observed stability of the individual TFTs.

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Inverted polymer solar cells with amorphous indium zinc oxide as the electron-collecting electrode

2010-11 , Cheun, Hyeunseok , Kim, Jungbae , Zhou, Yinhua , Fang, Yunnan , Dindar, Amir , Shim, Jaewon , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Sandhage, Kenneth H. , Kippelen, Bernard

We report on the fabrication and performance of polymer-based inverted solar cells utilizing amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the electron-collecting electrode. Amorphous IZO films of 200 nm thickness were deposited by room temperature sputtering in a high-purity argon atmosphere. The films possessed a high optical transmittance in the visible region (≥ 80%), a low resistivity (3.3 × 10⁻⁴ Ωcm), a low surface roughness (root mean square = 0.68 nm), and a low work function (4.46 ± 0.02 eV). Inverted solar cells with the structure a-IZO/P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3% estimated for AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm² illumination.

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A comprehensive analysis of the contributions to the nonlinear optical properties of thin Ag films

2010-06 , Owens, Daniel T. , Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek , Hales, Joel M. , Perry, Joseph W. , Kippelen, Bernard

The nonlinear optical properties of 20 nm thick Ag films are investigated by time-resolved white- light continuum pump-probe experiments in both transmission and reflection mode. The dynamics of changes in permittivity Δε are measured at wavelengths between 500 to 700 nm. The data is fitted to a modified Drude model in the frequency domain and to a two-temperature model in the time domain. Changes in the individual Drude parameters are calculated as a function of time. A single, coherent model is proposed based on these fittings that describes the dynamics of the nonlinear optical properties of Ag, which could be used to model the nonlinear responses of multilayer structures containing thin films of Ag. The physical origins of the observed responses are discussed.