Wong, C. P.

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    Separation of Low Molecular Siloxanes for Electronic Application by Liquid-Liquid Extraction
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-10) Wong, C. P. ; Urasaki, Naoyuki
    Silicone resins are widely used for electronic packaging as potting and encapsulating materials. Silicone resins have many advantages for electronic packaging applications such as superior electrical properties, thermal stability, low water absorption, etc. Furthermore, silicone resins are not only used as protective materials for integrated circuit (IC) devices but also as conducting materials for interconnection. However, silicone resins have two big drawbacks: low adhesion strength and low molecular weight creep. A simple liquid-liquid extraction method has been developed to purify silicone resins, which will improve adhesion strength and eliminate low molecular weight creep. This paper describes the results of the liquid-liquid extraction method to remove low molecular weight cyclic siloxanes. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the removal rate of low molecular weight cyclic siloxanes. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to evaluate the purity of silicone resin. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the low molecular weight cyclic siloxanes. Thermomechanical analyzer (TMA), dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), and die shear test were used for evaluate the properties of silicone resin.
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    A Study of Lubricants on Silver Flakes for Microelectronics Conductive Adhesives
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-09) Wong, C. P. ; Lu, Daoqiang
    Conductive adhesives are composites of polymer matrixes and metal fillers (conductive elements). Silver (Ag) flakes are widely used as fillers for electrically conductive adhesives (ECA’s). Generally, there is a thin layer of organic lubricant coated on the commercial Ag flake surface. This lubricant layer is needed for eliminating the Ag particle agglomeration while dispersing the Ag filler into the polymeric resin. Therefore the lubricant influences rheology, conductivity, and other properties of ECA’s. The nature of the lubricant on a Ag flake and the interaction between the lubricant and the Ag flake surface were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIR). Thermal decomposition of the lubricant was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the effects of some chemical compounds on lubricant removal and the enhancement of conductivity of the ECA were also investigated. It was found that 1) a chemical bonding was formed on the Ag flake surface between the lubricant and Ag; 2) the short chain acids replaced the long chain lubricants; 3) an ether and a poly(ethylene glycol) enhanced electrical conductivity by partially removing the Ag flake lubricants.
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    Mechanisms Underlying the Unstable Contact Resistance of Conductive Adhesives
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-07) Wong, C. P. ; Lu, Daoqiang ; Tong, Quinn K.
    One critical obstacle of current conductive adhesives is their unstable contact resistance with nonnoble metal finished components during high temperature and humidity aging. It is commonly accepted that metal oxide formation at the interface between the conductive adhesive and the nonnoble metal surface is responsible for the contact resistance shift. Two different mechanisms, simple oxidation and galvanic corrosion, both can cause metal oxide formation, but no prior work has been conducted to confirm which mechanism is the dominant one. Therefore, this study is aimed at identifying the main mechanism for the metal oxide formation and the unstable contact resistance phenomenon of current conductive adhesives. A contact resistance test device, which consists of metal wire segments and conductive adhesive dots, is specially designed for this study. Adhesives and metal wires are carefully selected and experiments are systematically designed. Based on the results of this systematic study, galvanic corrosion has been identified as the underlying mechanism for the metal oxide formation and for the observed unstable contact resistance phenomenon of conductive adhesives.
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    Conductivity Mechanisms of Isotropic Conductive Adhesives (ICA’s)
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-07) Wong, C. P. ; Lu, Daoqiang ; Tong, Quinn K.
    Isotropic conductive adhesives (ICA’s) are usually composites of adhesive resins with conductive fillers (mainly silver flakes). The adhesive pastes before cure usually have low electrical conductivity. The conductive adhesives become highly conductive only after the adhesives are cured and solidified. The mechanisms of conductivity achievement in conductive adhesives were discussed. Experiments were carefully designed in order to determine the roles of adhesive shrinkage and silver (Ag) flake lubricant removal on adhesive conductivity achievement during cure. The conductivity establishment of the selected adhesive pastes and the cure shrinkage of the corresponding adhesive resins during cure were studied. Then conductivity developments of some metallic fillers and ICA pastes with external pressures were studied by using a specially designed test device. In addition, conductivity, resin cure shrinkage, and Ag flake lubricant behavior of an ICA which was cured at room temperature (25 ℃) were investigated. Based on the results, it was found that cure shrinkage of the resin, rather than lubricant removal, was the prerequisite for conductivity development of conductive adhesives. In addition, an explanation of how cure shrinkage could cause conductivity achievement of conductive adhesives during cure was proposed in this paper.
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    Novel Bi-Layer Conformal Coating for Reliability Without Hermeticity MEMS Encapsulation
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-07) Wong, C. P. ; Wu, Jiali ; Pike, Randy T.
    A flexible, smooth, and low profile conformal coating was developed to accomplish the encapsulation of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device that will be applied to sense the static pressure on aircraft during real flight testing. The encapsulant should be able to protect the MEMS device and the multichip module (MCM) from adverse environmental conditions, i.e., mechanical shock, temperature fluctuation, engine fuel and oil contamination, and moisture/mobile ion permeation. Presently, conventional packaging schemes for electronics cannot satisfy this specific outdoor application, and a new encapsulation combination has been designed in accord with the requirement of reliability without hermeticity (RWOH). A bi-layer structure was selected because of property limitations of a single material. Pliable elastomeric silicones, are typically flexible, water repellant, and abrasion resistant. The silicone encapsulant will be first applied to planarize the MEMS surface and function as durable dielectric insulation, stress-relief, and shock/vibration absorbers over a wide humidity/temperature range. To compensate for the deficiency of silicone on engine fuel/oil contamination, Parylene C is to be deposited afterward. This bi-layer coating can achieve excellent bulk properties, such as moisture and mobile ion barrier resistance, chemical compatibility, and electrical insulation characteristics. However, the poor adhesion of Parylene C to silicone greatly restricts its application. To address this problem, silane coupling agents were used as an adhesion promoter. Significant adhesion im provement was achieved by placing an interlayer silane coupling agent to provide interfacial bonding to the silicone elastomeric surface and the Parylene C film. Furthermore, a possible mechanism of adhesion enhancement will also be presented in this study. Index Terms— Bi-layer conformal coating, micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), multichip module, Parylene C, reliability without hermeticity (RWOH), silane coupling agent, silicone elastomer.
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    Recent Advances in Plastic Packaging of Flip-Chip and Multichip Modules (MCM) of Microelectronics
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-03) Wong, C. P. ; Wong, Michelle M.
    The success in consumer electronics in the 1990’s will be focused on low-cost and high performance electronics. Recent advances in polymeric materials (plastics) and integrated circuit (IC) encapsulants have made high-reliability very-large-scale integration (VLSI) plastic packaging a reality. High-performance polymeric materials possess excellent electrical and physical properties for IC protection. With their intrinsic low modulus and soft gel-like nature, silicone gels have become very effective encapsulants for larger, high input/output (I/O) (in excess of 10 000), wire-bonded and flip-chip VLSI chips. Furthermore, the recently developed silica-filled epoxies underfills, with the well controlled thermal coefficient of expansion (TCE), have enhanced the flip-chip and chip-on-board, direct chip attach (DCA) encapsulations. Recent studies indicate that adequate IC chip surface protection with high-performance silicone gels and epoxies plastic packages could replace conventional ceramic hermetic packages. This paper will review the IC technological trends, and IC encapsulation materials and processes. Special focus will be placed on the high-performance silicone and epoxy underfills, their chemistries and use as VLSI device encapsulants for single and multichip module applications.
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    Comparative Study of Thermally Conductive Fillers for Use in Liquid Encapsulants for Electronic Packaging
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-02) Wong, C. P. ; Bollampally, Raja Sheker
    Thermal management plays a very vital role in the packaging of high performance electronic devices. Effective heat dissipation is crucial to enhance the performance and reliability of the packaged devices. Liquid encapsulants used for glob top, potting, and underfilling applications can strongly influence the package heat dissipation. Unlike molding compounds, the filler loading in these encapsulants is restrained. This paper deals with the development and characterization of thermally conductive encapsulants with relatively low filler loading. A comparative study on the effect of different ceramic fillers on the thermal conductivity and other critical properties of an epoxy based liquid encapsulant is presented.
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    Novel Thermally Reworkable Underfill Encapsulants For Flip-Chip Applications
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-02) Wong, C. P. ; Wang, Lejun
    The flip-chip technique of integrated circuit (IC) chip interconnection is the emerging technology for high performance, high input/output (I/O) IC devices. Due to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the silicon IC (CTE = 2.5 ppm/℃) and the low cost organic substrate such as FR-4 printed wiring board (CTE = 18–22 ppm/℃), the flip-chip solder joints experience high shear stresses during temperature cycling. Underfill encapsulant is used to couple the bilayer structure and is critical to the reliability of the flip-chip solder interconnects. Current underfill encapsulants are filled epoxybased materials that are normally not reworkable after curing. This places an obstacle in flip-chip on board (FCOB) technology development, where unknown bad dies (UBD) are still a concern. Approaches have been taken to develop the thermally reworkable underfill materials in order to address the nonreworkability problem of the commercial underfill encapsulants. These approaches include introduction of thermally cleavable blocks into epoxides and addition of additives to the epoxies. In the first approach, five diepoxides containing thermally cleavable blocks were synthesized and characterized. These diepoxides were mixed with hardener and catalyst. Then the mixture properties of Tg, onset decomposition temperature, storage modulus, CTE, and viscosity were studied and compared with those of the standard formulation based on the commercial epoxy resin ERL-4221E. These mixtures all decomposed at lower temperature than the standard formulation. Moreover, one mixture, Epoxy5, showed acceptable Tg, low viscosity, and fairly good adhesion. In the second approach, two additives were discovered that provide die removal capability to the epoxy formulation without interfering with the epoxy cure or properties of the cured epoxy system. Furthermore, the combination of the two approaches showed positive results.
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    Correlation of Flip Chip Underfill Process Parameters and Material Properties with In-Process Stress Generation
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999-01) Wong, C. P. ; Palaniappan, Prema ; Baldwin, Daniel F. ; Selman, Paul J. ; Wu, Jiali
    Electronic packaging designs are moving toward fewer levels of packaging to enable miniaturization and to increase performance of electronic products. One such package design is flip chip on board (FCOB). In this method, the chip is attached face down directly to a printed wiring board (PWB). Since the package is comprised of dissimilar materials, the mechanical integrity of the flip chip during assembly and operation becomes an issue due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the chip, PWB, and interconnect materials. To overcome this problem, a rigid encapsulant (underfill) is introduced between the chip and the substrate. This reduces the effective CTE mismatch and reduces the effective stresses experienced by the solder interconnects. The presence of the underfill significantly improves long term reliability. The underfill material, however, does introduce a high level of mechanical stress in the silicon die. The stress in the assembly is a function of the assembly process, the underfill material, and the underfill cure process. Therefore, selection and processing of underfill material is critical to achieving the desired performance and reliability. The effect of underfill material on the mechanical stress induced in a flip chip assembly during cure was presented in previous publications. This paper studies the effect of the cure parameters on a selected commercial underfill and correlates these properties with the stress induced in flip chip assemblies during processing.
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    Modeling of imbedded passive components
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1999) Wong, C. P. ; Rao, Yang ; Qu, Jianmin