Wong, C. P.
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ItemConformally coating vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays using thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2012-05) Hildreth, Owen ; Cola, Baratunde A. ; Graham, Samuel ; Wong, C. P.Conformally coating vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (v-CNT) with metals or oxides can be difficult because standard line-of-sight deposition methods, such as dc sputter coating and electron-beam evaporation, are hindered by the low mean-free-path with
ItemSynthesis of High-Quality Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on Bulk Copper Substrate for Thermal Management(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2010-05) Lin, Wei ; Zhang, Rongwei ; Moon, Kyoung-Sik ; Wong, C. P.Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) grown on bulk copper substrate are of great importance for real-life commercial applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as thermal interface materials in microelectronic packaging. However, their reproducible syntheses have been a great challenge so far. In this study, by introducing a well-controlled conformal Al₂O₃ support layer on the bulk copper substrate by atomic layer deposition, we reproducibly synthesized VACNTs of good alignment and high quality on the copper substrate. The alignment and the quality were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy. The key roles of the conformal Al₂O₃ support layer by atomic layer deposition are discussed. This progress may provide a real-life VACNT application for thermal management.
ItemEffect of Permittivity and Permeability of a Flexible Magnetic Composite Material on the Performance and Miniaturization Capability of Planar Antennas for RFID and Wearable Wireless Applications(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-12) Martin, Lara J. ; Ooi, Sooliam ; Staiculescu, Daniela ; Hill, Michael D. ; Wong, C. P. ; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.This paper is an investigation of the feasibility of applying a mechanically flexible magnetic composite material to radio frequency identification (RFID) planar antennas operating in the lower ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) spectrum (∼300– 500 MHz). A key challenge is that the magnetic loss introduced by the magnetic composite must be sufficiently low for successful application at the targeted operating frequency. A flexible magnetic composite comprised of particles of Z-phase Co hexaferrite, also known as Co₂Z, in a silicone matrix was developed. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first flexible magnetic composite demonstrated to work at these frequencies. The benchmarking structure was a quarter-wavelength microstrip patch antenna. Antennas on the developed magnetic composite and pure silicone substrates were electromagnetically modeled in Ansoft High- Frequency Sounder System full wave electromagnetic software. A prototype of the antenna on the magnetic composite was fabricated, and good agreement between the simulated and measured results was found. Comparison of the antennas on the magnetic composite versus the pure silicone substrate showed miniaturization capability of 2.4× and performance differences of increased bandwidth and reduced gain, both of which were attributed in part to the increase in the dielectric and magnetic losses. A key finding of this paper is that a small amount of permeability (μr∼2.5) can provide a substantial capability for miniaturization, while sufficiently low-magnetic loss can be introduced for successful application at the targeted operating frequency. This magnetic composite shows the capability to fulfill this balance and to be a feasible option for RFID, flexible wearable, and conformal applications in the lower UHF spectrum.
ItemEnhanced Electrical Properties of Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive With $pi$ -Conjugated Self-Assembled Molecular Wire Junctions(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-09) Zhang, Rongwei ; Li, Yi ; Yim, Myung Jin ; Moon, Kyoung-Sik ; Lu, Daoqiang ; Wong, C. P.We have investigated the electrical properties of anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) joint using submicrometer- sized ( 500 nm in diameter) silver (Ag) particle as conductive filler with the effect of -conjugated self-assembled molecular wires. The ACAs with submicrometer-sized Ag particles have higher current carrying capability ( 3400 mA) than those with micro-sized Au-coated polymer particles ( 2000 mA) and Ag nanoparticles ( 2500 mA). More importantly, by construction of -conjugated self-assembled molecular wire junctions between conductive particles and integrated circuit (IC)/substrate, the electrical conductivity has increased by one order of magnitude and the current carrying capability of ACAs has improved by 600 mA. The crucial factors that govern the improved electrical properties are discussed based on the study of alignments and thermal stability of molecules on the submicrometer-sized Ag particle surface with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), providing a fundamental understanding of conduction mechanism in ACA joints and guidelines for the formulation of high-performance ACAs in electronic packaging industry.
ItemNear Void-Free Assembly Development of Flip Chip Using No-Flow Underfill(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-04) Lee, Sangil ; Yim, Myung Jin ; Master, Raj N. ; Wong, C. P. ; Baldwin, Daniel F.The advanced flip-chip-in-package (FCIP) process technology, using no-flow underfill material for high I/O density (over 3000 I/O) and fine-pitch (down to 150 μm) interconnect applications, presents challenges for flip chip processing because underfill void formation during reflow drives interconnect yield down and degrades reliability. In spite of such challenges, a high yield, reliable assembly process (> 99.99%) has been achieved using commercial no-flow underfill material with a high I/O, fine-pitch FCIP. This has been obtained using design of experiments with physical interpretation techniques. Statistical analysis determined what assembly conditions should be used in order to achieve robust interconnects without disrupting the FCIP interconnect structure. However, the resulting high yield process had the side effect of causing a large number of voids in the FCIP assemblies. Parametric studies were conducted to develop assembly process conditions that would minimize the number of voids in the FCIP induced by thermal effects. This work has resulted in a significant reduction in the number of underfill voids. This paper presents systematic studies into yield characterization, void formation characterization, and void reduction through the use of structured experimentation which was designed to improve assembly yield and to minimize the number of voids, respectively, in FCIP assemblies.
ItemNovel Nano-Scale Conductive Films With Enhanced Electrical Performance and Reliability for High Performance Fine Pitch Interconnect(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009-02) Li, Yi ; Yim, Myung Jin ; Moon, Kyoung-Sik ; Wong, C. P.In this paper, a novel nano-scale conductive film which combines the advantages of both traditional anisotropic conductive adhesives/films (ACAs/ACFs) and nonconductive adhesives/films (NCAs/NCFs) is introduced for next generation high-performance ultra-fine pitch packaging applications. This novel interconnect film possesses the properties of electrical conduction along the z direction with relatively low bonding pressure (ACF-like) and the ultra-fine pitch (< 30 μm) capability (NCF-like). The nano-scale conductive film also allows a lower bonding pressure than NCF to achieve a much lower joint resistance (over two orders of magnitude lower than typical ACF joints) and higher current carrying capability. With low temperature sintering of nano-silver fillers, the joint resistance of the nano-scale conductive film was as low as 10―5 Ohm. The reliability of the nano-scale conductive film after high temperature and humidity test (85°C/85% RH) was also improved compared to the NCF joints. The insertion loss of nano-scale conductive film joints up to 10 GHz was almost the same as that of the standard ACF or NCF joints, suggesting that the nano-scale conductive film is suitable for reliable high-frequency adhesive joints in microelectronics packaging.
ItemConformal Magnetic Composite RFID for Wearable RF and Bio-Monitoring Applications(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-12-12) Yang, Li ; Martin, Lara J. ; Staiculescu, Daniela ; Wong, C. P. ; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.This paper introduces for the first time a novel flexible magnetic composite material for RF identification (RFID) and wearable RF antennas. First, one conformal RFID tag working at 480 MHz is designed and fabricated as a benchmarking prototype and the miniaturization concept is verified. Then, the impact of the material is thoroughly investigated using a hybrid method involving electromagnetic and statistical tools. Two separate statistical experiments are performed, one for the analysis of the impact of the relative permittivity and permeability of the proposed material and the other for the evaluation of the impact of the dielectric and magnetic loss on the antenna performance. Finally, the effect of the bending of the antenna is investigated, both on the S-parameters and on the radiation pattern. The successful implementation of the flexible magnetic composite material enables the significant miniaturization of RF passives and antennas in UHF frequency bands, especially when conformal modules that can be easily fine-tuned are required in critical biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.
ItemVoid Formation Study of Flip Chip in Package Using No-Flow Underfill(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-10) Lee, Sangil ; Yim, Myung Jin ; Master, Raj N. ; Wong, C. P. ; Baldwin, Daniel F.The advanced flip chip in package (FCIP) process using no-flow underfill material for high I/O density and fine-pitch interconnect applications presents challenges for an assembly process that must achieve high electrical interconnect yield and high reliability performance. With respect to high reliability, the voids formed in the underfill between solder bumps or inside the solder bumps during the no-flow underfill assembly process of FCIP devices have been typically considered one of the critical concerns affecting assembly yield and reliability performance. In this paper, the plausible causes of underfill void formation in FCIP using no-flow underfill were investigated through systematic experimentation with different types of test vehicles. For instance, the effects of process conditions, material properties, and chemical reaction between the solder bumps and no-flow underfill materials on the void formation behaviors were investigated in advanced FCIP assemblies. In this investigation, the chemical reaction between solder and underfill during the solder wetting and underfill cure process has been found to be one of the most significant factors for void formation in high I/O and fine-pitch FCIP assembly using no-flow underfill materials.
ItemRecent Advances in High-k Nanocomposite Materials for Embedded Capacitor Applications(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-10) Lu, Jiongxin ; Wong, C. P.In this paper, a wide variety of high dielectric constant (k) composite materials which have been developed and evaluated for embedded capacitor application are reviewed. Current research efforts toward achieving high dielectric performance including highk and low dielectric loss for polymer composites are presented. New insights into the effect of unique properties of the nanoparticle filler, filler modification and the dispersion between filler and polymer matrix on the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites are discussed in details.
ItemA Novel Nanocomposite with Photo-Polymerization for Wafer Level Application(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008-03) Sun, Yangyang ; Jiang, Hongjin ; Zhu, Lingbo ; Wong, C. P.A novel nanocomposite photo-curable material which can act both as a photoresist and a stress redistribution layer applied on the wafer level was synthesized and studied. In the experiments, 20-nm silica fillers were modified by a silane coupling agent through a hydrolysis and condensation reaction and then incorporated into the epoxy matrix. A photo-sensitive initiator was added into the formulation which can release cations after ultraviolet exposure and initiate the epoxy crosslinking reaction. The photo-crosslinking reaction of the epoxy made it a negative tone photoresist. The curing reaction of the nanocomposites was monitored by a differential scanning calorimeter with the photo-calorimetric accessory. The thermal mechanical properties of photo-cured nanocomposites thin film were also measured. It was found that the moduli change of the nanocomposites as the filler loading increasing did not follow the Mori–Tanaka model, which indicated that the nanocomposite was not a simple two-phase structure as the composite with micron size filler. The addition of nano-sized silica fillers reduced the thermal expansion and improved the stiffness of the epoxy, with only a minimal effect on the optical transparency of the epoxy, which facilitated the complete photo reaction in the epoxy.