Walker, Bruce N.
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ItemEvaluation of a non-visual auditory choropleth and travel map viewer(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2022-06) Biggs, Brandon ; Toth, Christopher ; Stockman, Tony ; Coughlan, James M. ; Walker, Bruce N.The auditory virtual reality interface of Audiom, a web-based map viewer, was evaluated by thirteen blind participants. In Audiom, the user is an avatar that navigates, using the arrow keys, through geographic data, as if they are playing a first-person, egocentric game. The research questions were: What will make blind users want to use Audiom maps? And Can participants demonstrate basic acquisition of spatial knowledge after viewing an auditory map? A dynamic choropleth map of state-level US COVID-19 data, and a detailed OpenStreetMap powered travel map, were evaluated. All participants agreed they wanted more maps of all kinds, in particular county-level COVID data, and they would use Audiom once some bugs were fixed and their few recommended features were added. Everyone wanted to see Audiom embedded in their existing travel and mapping applications. All participants were able to answer a question evaluating spatial knowledge. Participants also agreed this spatial information was not available in existing applications.
ItemThe Development of a Measurement Tool for Mastery of Assistive Technology(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2021-06-30) Satterfield, Richard (Ben) ; Walker, Bruce N. ; Milchus, KarenThis report describes the development of a survey tool used to measure and assess “mastery of assistive technology”. A Delphi Panel comprised of experts in the area of Assistive Technology (AT) was gathered to explore the question of “What is mastery of AT?” For the purposes of this study, mastery was defined as becoming a “power user” of AT. Panelists were asked to identify what characteristics are associated with being a power user of AT. The panel gave these characteristics Likert Scale rankings as to their applicability as a predictor of becoming a power user and as an indicator of having become a power user. The rankings were compared, and the panel was asked to revisit the rankings in order to identify the most important factors. The panel identified 12 predictors and 14 indicators that they felt were highly predictive of becoming a power user or indicative of being one. These factors were analyzed and found to coalesce around four constructs or areas of mastery: (1) Experience (Usage) with AT; (2) Proficiency with AT; (3) Knowledge of AT; and (4) Personal Connection with AT. An online survey-based tool for measuring AT mastery was developed based on these constructs and presented to the panel for feedback and critique.
ItemHighcharts Sonification Studio: an online, open-source, extensible, and accessible data sonification tool(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2021-06) Cantrell, Stanley J. ; Walker, Bruce N. ; Moseng, ØysteinThe Highcharts Sonification Studio is the culmination of a multi-year collaboration between Highsoft — the creators of Highcharts — and the Georgia Tech Sonification Lab to develop an extensible, accessible, online spreadsheet and multimodal graphing platform for the auditory display, assistive technology, and STEM education communities. The Highcharts Sonification Studio leverages the advances in auditory display and sonification research, as well as over 20 years of experience gained through research and development of the original Sonification Sandbox. We discuss the iterative design and evaluation process of the Highcharts Sonification Studio to ensure usability and accessibility, highlight opportunities for growth of the tool, and its use for research, art, and education within the ICAD community and beyond.
ItemTo sonify or not to sonify? Educator perceptions of auditory display in interactive simulations(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2021-06) Fiedler, Brett L. ; Walker, Bruce N. ; Moore, Emily B.With the growing presence of auditory display in popular learning tools, it is beneficial to researchers to consider not only the perceptions of the students who use the tools, but the educators who include the tools in their curriculum. We surveyed over 4000 educators to investigate educator perceptions and preferences across four interactive physics simulations for the presence and qualities of non-speech auditory display, as well as surveying users' selfrated musical sophistication as potentially predictive of auditory display preference. We find that the majority of teachers preferred the simulations with auditory display and consistently rated aspects of the experience using simulations with sound positively over the without-sound variants. We also identify simulation design features that align with trends in educator ratings. We did not find the measured musical sophistication to be a predictor of auditory display preference.
ItemCan You Hear My Heartbeat?: Hearing an Expressive Biosignal Elicits Empathy - Supplementary Data(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2021-05-07) Winters, R. Michael ; Leslie, Grace ; Walker, Bruce N.Interfaces designed to elicit empathy provide an opportunity for HCI with important pro-social outcomes. Recent research has demonstrated that perceiving expressive biosignals can facilitate emotional understanding and connection with others, but this work has been largely limited to visual approaches. We propose that hearing these signals will also elicit empathy, and test this hypothesis with sounding heartbeats. In a lab-based within-subjects study, participants (N = 27) completed an emotion recognition task in different heartbeat conditions. We found that hearing heartbeats changed participants’ emotional perspective and increased their reported ability to “feel what the other was feeling.” From these results, we argue that auditory heartbeats are well-suited as an empathic intervention, and might be particularly useful for certain groups and use-contexts because of its musical and non-visual nature. This work establishes a baseline for empathic auditory interfaces, and offers a method to evaluate the effects of future designs.
ItemPerceived Relational Risk and Perceived Situational Risk Scales(Georgia Institute of Technology, 2020-10-10) Stuck, Rachel E. ; Walker, Bruce N.This technical report provides an overview of how to use scales that were developed for perceived relational risk and perceived situational risk.