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School of Psychology

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Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 961
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    Effects of Individual Differences in Personality Traits and Self-Concept of Abilities on Willingness to Adopt AI Tools
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2024-04-29) Provine, Lucas
    Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly being used to automate and augment tasks in a variety of domains from the workplace to daily life. However, little is known about the influence that individual differences in personality and ability self-concept have on people’s attitudes and adoption of AI technology to assist with tasks. The objective of this study was to determine how select personality traits (e.g., extraversion, neuroticism, and propensity to trust) and ability self-concept (e.g., verbal, math, spatial, and organizational) contribute to one’s willingness to adopt AI for decision-making purposes in various contexts. I leveraged the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al., 2003) to do so. To accomplish this, 231 working adults (126 females and 105 males) were recruited from Prolific to participate in a vignette study that involved assessment of attitudes and behavioral intentions to use AI in 22 scenarios. The results indicated that: (1) the personality and self-concept variables do not contribute additional meaningful variance in predicting behavioral intentions to use AI over and above UTAUT’s performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence variables; (2) one’s general propensity to trust others is associated with more positive expectations of AI performance; (3) higher ability self-concept is positively associated with perceiving AI as requiring less effort to use; and (4) attitudes and intentions toward using AI are significantly lower when individuals perceive personal situational liability for the consequences of errors that might occur while using the AI. Future researchers are encouraged to further explore how salient situational factors and stable individual difference variables might interact to inform people’s attitudes and intentions toward using AI.
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    The Role of Microbreaks in the Work Recovery Process
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2024-04-15) Moran, Lauren H.
    Job stress remains a threat to the health and productivity of workers nationwide, and in response, increased efforts have been made to understand how individuals recover from unavoidable stressors in the workplace. However, little research has been done on how at-work breaks such as microbreaks are related to off-work recovery experiences. This study sought to uncover when and why individuals use microbreaks as a part of the broader recovery process, as well as how family demands impact the relationship between fatigue and microbreaks. I test a serial mediation model at the daily level in which evening relaxation predicts next-day evening relaxation via morning fatigue and microbreak frequency. Specifically, I examine whether high evening relaxation predicts lower next-day morning fatigue, which in turn predicts lower at-work microbreak frequency, which then predicts higher evening relaxation. I also consider whether family role overload moderates the relationship between morning fatigue and microbreak frequency. Experience-sampling methodology was used to examine these relationships over a period of 4 weeks, with multilevel structural equation modeling used to examine the posited relationships. None of the hypothesized paths were significant. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.
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    Feedback-Seeking Behavior in Synchronous Remote Learning of Juggling: Effects of Individual Motivational Traits and Self-Efficacy
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2024-03-13) Qi, Ziyu
    Existing literature examining remote learning has not sufficiently addressed the remote acquisition of procedural skills. Furthermore, the differences in teacher-learner interaction between remote and in-person environments have not been considered in a procedural skill learning context. In the current study, I examined the differences in feedback-seeking behavior between remote and in-person learning environments. I also examined whether predictors of feedback-seeking behavior, namely goal orientation and self-efficacy, continue to predict feedback-seeking in a remote setting. In the current study, undergraduate student participants’ goal orientation, self-efficacy in 3-ball cascade juggling, and self-concept in motor abilities were measured. Participants’ feedback-seeking behaviors were subsequently measured while learning a 3-ball cascade juggling task in either remote or in-person conditions. The study’s results showed that feedback-seeking behavior did not differ significantly between remote and in-person environments except for feedback-seeking via self-monitoring. No significant relationship was found between goal orientation, self-efficacy, and verbal feedback-seeking frequency, potentially due to insufficient power. Exploratory qualitative comparisons examining active feedback-seekers suggested that there were potential qualitative differences in the contents of feedback-seeking. Findings in existing literature considering remote classroom learning were largely not replicated, suggesting that patterns of feedback-seeking behaviors in complex classroom environments may not be applicable to lab learning. Similarly, the motivational model of feedback-seeking may not be suitable. Still, exploratory analyses provided preliminary evidence that a remote learning environment did impact feedback-seeking and general learning behaviors in procedural acquisition processes.
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    Conflict in Teams: An Episodic Approach to Assessing the Mediation of Conflict Behaviors on the Relationship Between Personality and Team-Level Outcomes
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2024-03-12) Drose, Cooper
    Conflict management behaviors have long been studied as critical components in successful teams because they may help to enhance positive and mitigate negative outcomes associated with conflict. Recent research has called for a more dynamic understanding of conflict; this study serves to answer this call by evaluating conflict as an emergent phenomenon using the IMOI model using an episodic methodological approach. Using a lab sample of 83 teams and 292 participants, this study looked at personality as a predictor of conflict behaviors and the subsequent impact these behaviors have on team performance and cohesion. Results from this study found that the Dark Triad was not a significant predictor of conflict behaviors in the first conflict episode. I then called upon the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory to predict conflict behaviors over time, finding that the use of individualistic and collectivistic conflict behaviors in the first episode significantly negatively predicted the continued use of these behaviors in subsequent episodes. Additionally, it was found that the use of individualistic and collectivistic conflict behaviors from the focal individual significantly negatively predicted the use of these behaviors in others within the team in subsequent episodes. While it was ultimately found that increased use of individualistic conflict behaviors negatively impacted the team-level group cohesion, collectivistic and individualistic conflict behaviors were not found to be a significant mediator between the Dark Triad and team level outcomes of performance and group cohesion. This study contributes to our understanding of conflict as a dynamic construct within teams, as well as providing further evidence in support of COR theory.
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    Great Expectations: The Consequences of Employee Caffeine Use to Meet Leader Performance Expectations
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2024-02-12) Garcia, Spencer Christian
    Leaders typically have expectations for their followers’ performance. These expectations can serve to improve follower performance. However, when leader performance expectations become sufficiently high, they may become demanding for followers. To meet these demands, individuals may use compensatory behaviors, including stimulant use (i.e., caffeine). However, these variables may relate to further negative well-being consequences (i.e., mental fatigue). Drawing from Conservation of Resources (COR), this study sought to elucidate the potential relationships between these variables by testing their interplay in a loss spiral. This study used an archival dataset that included 127 employees who completed 3 daily surveys across 10 working days. Results do not suggest that a loss spiral is occurring. Caffeine was not a significant predictor of performance or other next-day mental fatigue. Leader performance expectations positively predicted same-day caffeine use, same-day perceived job performance, and next-day mental fatigue. This highlights both positive and aversive consequences of leader performance expectations. This study contributes to the understanding of leadership theories and the effects of high leader performance expectations on employees. Notably, this study makes these contributions at the within-person level.
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    From Adoption to Disuse: Investigating the Factors Influencing ​ Disuse of Smart Technologies in Older Adults​
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2024-02-08) Gleaton, Emily C.
    The purpose of this poster was to elucidate the qualitative research findings about why older adults adopt and subsequently discontinue using conversational agent technology.
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    Directability Through AI Customization: The Effect of Choice on Trust and Acceptance in Highly Automated Vehicles
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2023-12-05) Scott-Sharoni, Sidney Tammie
    People feel apprehensive about using or relying on highly automated vehicles (American Automotive Association, 2019). One method of assuaging fears involves providing explanations for the system’s behaviors using a Human-Machine Interface (HMI). However, understanding the amount of information for optimal human-automation interaction can prove difficult due to differences in individuals’ preferences, experiences, and needs. An underexplored method that may account for these discrepancies involves providing users with choices or customization. The Coactive Design Approach suggests that including directability, or the power to influence a system’s actions, may improve how users interact with systems (Johnson et al., 2014). The following study investigated how customization affordances and modified vehicle aspect of a Level 4 automated vehicle affected trust and acceptance. One hundred twenty participants experienced one highly automated simulator drive, during which they engaged in a visually demanding game. A MANOVA assessed the interaction of and main effects of customization availability and modified vehicle aspect on trust and acceptance. While participants who customized had higher average trust and acceptance in the automated vehicle than participants who did not customize, only the main effect of vehicle aspect significantly impacted the multivariate dimension of trust and acceptance in the automated vehicle. That is, modifications to the vehicle impacted users regardless of whether they chose the modification. The game score and subjective trust did significantly correlate to a small, positive extent, indicating that higher trust in a system may improve non-driving related task performance. Future research should continue to investigate the role of choice in the interaction between individuals and highly automated systems to understand the psychological impacts of directability.
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    Mindfulness and its relationship to race-related stress, racial identity, age, gender, and ses across multiple racial minorities
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2023-10-13) Mirabito, Grazia
    Racism is still a very pervasive problem in our nation. The literature on racism and race-related stress has predominately focused on African American populations, which is not surprising since they experience a disproportional amount of discrimination compared to other ethnicities. Nevertheless, due to the different lived experiences with racism and discrimination for each minority, I believe it is important to assess multiple racial groups’ experiences with racism (e.g. African American, Asian American, and Latinx persons). Racism can lead to race-related stress and thus to significant detriments in mental and physical health outcomes in People of Color (POC). This study took a novel and exploratory approach to understanding whether mindfulness, coping, and ethnic identity can buffer against the effects of race-related stress. Using a single-point-in-time online survey amongst 676 Asian American, African American, and Latinx participants measuring trait mindfulness, coping, ethnic identity, frequency of exposure to racism, rumination, race-related stress, anxiety, well-being, depression, and demographic factors (i.e., age, gender, education, income, and personality). Using multigroup structural equation modeling, I investigated whether mindfulness, coping, and ethnic identity mitigated the effects of race-related stress on rumination and psychological outcomes amongst POC. I found that at high levels of ethnic identity and some mindfulness subscales, there was greater use of adaptive coping skills, reduced race-related stress and rumination, and improved psychological outcomes. Additionally, I found that at high levels of exposure to racism, the cascade from mindfulness to race-related stress to psychological outcomes was worsened. Results were promising concerning the protective effects of most mindfulness subscales and ethnic identity against race-related stress. These variables exerted their influence primarily through the mediator coping. There were also negative effects of exposure to racism on the psychological outcomes. The only mindfulness variables that had a negative impact were Nonjudgement (in the African American sample only) and Observing, where Nonjudgement’s effect is most likely caused by personality, age, or some unmeasured variable, while the effects of Observing are most likely caused by detrimental effects of monitoring without acceptance. Furthermore, many of these pathways (58 out of 64 pathways) do not vary by ethnicity suggesting a primarily universal relationship across groups. The present study was successful in collecting a large sample of POC to compare across group differences and demonstrated that many of these mindfulness, ethnic identity, coping, and race-related stress processes exist similarly across multiple ethnic groups.
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    Measure and Manage Trust in Human-AI Conversations
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2023-10-12) Li, Mengyao
    Artificial Intelligence (AI), with its increasing capability and connectivity, extends beyond limited and well-defined contexts and is integrated into broader societal domains. AI algorithms now steer autonomous vehicle fleets, shape political beliefs through news filtering, and oversee resource allocation and labor. Establishing trust between humans and their AI counterparts becomes important to facilitate effective cooperation. Trust profoundly influences how individuals use, communicate with, and collaborate alongside AI systems. Thus, trust measurement and management within human-AI cooperation are indispensable for ensuring safety, efficiency, and overall success. This talk focuses on trust in human-AI interactions, addressing three primary questions: (1) How can we measure people’s trust in human-AI conversations? (2) How does trust change over time within human-AI conversations? (3) How can we effectively manage instances of overtrust or undertrust through conversational cues to enhance human-AI cooperation? This talk highlights critical advancements in measurement of trust dynamics in human-AI cooperation, promising to influence the future of AI integration into broader societal domains.
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    A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Procedural Skill Retention and Decay
    (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2023-09-26) Tatel, Corey E.
    The extent to which procedural skills involving motor components decay over time is an issue that has significant ramifications for the safety and well-being of individuals and society. Prior researchers have concluded that there is a general pattern of skill decay as a function of the length of the retention interval. However, previous researchers relied primarily on studies that leveraged shorter retention intervals than are characteristic of real-world contexts (e.g., days or weeks) and included skills that require both declarative and procedural knowledge. This dissertation presents a new meta-analysis of skill retention that focuses specifically on procedural skills and leverages a recent influx of interdisciplinary literature (e.g., healthcare, sports psychology) consisting of longer retention intervals (e.g., months and years). A broad literature search led to the inclusion of 1,352 effect sizes from 457 sources. Random-effects meta-regression models were computed with retention interval as a predictor of standardized mean differences representing changes in performance between skill acquisition and skill retention for accuracy-based performance measures, speed-based performance measures, and performance measures that were a mix of accuracy and speed. Results indicated that standardized mean differences increased in magnitude by 0.08 per month for accuracy-based performance measures and 0.06 per month for speed-based and mixed performance measures. Initial skill acquisition performance gains were lost between one year and two and half years after they were acquired. Task type, task complexity, infrequent performance opportunities, and task instructions were identified as potentially meaningful moderators of skill decline rates. Findings provide applied audiences with an estimate of how much skill decay can be expected if skills are not frequently used and therefore, when refresher training should be considered. Important methodological considerations for skill retention research were also identified, including the need to isolate retention performance from relearning effects and the need to account for Speed-Accuracy-Tradeoff functions when interpreting changes in performance over time.